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William Ashe, Railroad Proponent, Handcar Crash Victim

This Day in North Carolina History - Thu, 09/14/2017 - 01:00

On September 14, 1862, William Ashe, railroad president and commander of the Confederate government’s transportation network between New Orleans and Richmond, died after being struck by a train.

Born in 1814 in what is now Pender County, Ashe was a lawyer and rice planter before entering politics. He was elected to the state senate in 1846, and in that chamber, worked to secure appropriations for railroads, particularly for ones that would connect the western part of the state with the port in Wilmington. He was re-elected to the state senate in 1848 before entering Congress in 1849, where he continued to focus on internal improvements. He became president of the Wilmington and Weldon Railroad in 1854.

An outspoken supporter of secession, Ashe was asked by President Jefferson Davis to take control of the Confederate government’s rail transportation in 1861. In 1862, when he heard that one of his sons had been captured, he commandeered a hand car to make a trip home. As he traveled, an unlighted train struck him during the night.

Ironically, the very thing that Ashe had worked so hard to bring to life took his own.

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Militia Clash at Lindley’s Mill

This Day in North Carolina History - Thu, 09/14/2017 - 01:00

On September 13, 1781, the largest engagement of North Carolina’s “Tory War” took place in present-day Alamance County near Thomas Lindley’s mill. In the aftermath of Lord Charles Cornwallis’s invasion of North Carolina in the spring of 1781, a prolonged civil conflict erupted in the Piedmont. Whig and Loyalist militias openly attacked each other as well as neutral parties.

At dawn on September 12, under the cover of a heavy fog, David Fanning’s men entered Hillsborough, taking the town by surprise and capturing 200 prisoners, including most of the General Assembly and Governor Thomas Burke. Fanning and his men, their prisoners in tow, departed for Wilmington in the afternoon.

Word of the disaster reached Brigadier General John Butler of the North Carolina militia that evening. Butler quickly organized men from Orange County to intercept the Tory force. Butler’s 400 men arrived ahead of Fanning at Lindley’s Mill. On the morning of September 13, fighting erupted. When it was all over, Fanning had received a serious wound in his arm, forcing him to retire from the field. That night, local Quakers collected the dead and wounded on the field. Local surgeons were called upon to help administer to the wounded.

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For more about North Carolina’s history, arts and culture, visit Cultural Resources online. To receive these updates automatically each day, make sure you subscribe by email using the box on the right, and follow us on FacebookTwitter and Pinterest.

The Bard of Ottaray, Shepherd Dugger

This Day in North Carolina History - Thu, 09/14/2017 - 01:00

On September 13, 1938, Shepherd Dugger, chronicler of North Carolina mountain life, died.

In 1881 Dugger, became the first superintendent of Watauga County’s public schools. After holding that position for a single four-year term, he opened a hotel at the base of Grandfather Mountain, with partner J. Erwin Callaway.

Dugger married Callaway’s daughter, Margaret, in 1887.

After Margaret’s death, Dugger raised two sons and pursued his interests in mining and surveying. He also began to write and publish books and pamphlets related to his beloved mountains, known to the Indians as “Ottaray.”

Dugger served as superintendent of roads in Avery County, later calling himself “the Colossus of Roads,” and worked as a surveyor and highway engineer for 17 years, usually traveling the mountain roads by foot, carrying a walking stick. Along the road he gave lectures, read from his works and stayed in local people’s homes.

Dugger’s most notable books are The Balsam Groves of the Grandfather Mountain and The War Trails of the Blue Ridge, published in 1892 and 1932, respectively. It’s been said of him:

No man knew the Blue Ridge people, lore, habits, and tastes better than Shepherd Dugger. In his day he was the foremost historian of the region and recorder of its traditions.

Dugger is buried in the Banner Elk.

For more about North Carolina’s history, arts, nature and culture, visit DNCR online. To receive these updates automatically each day, make sure you subscribe by email using the box on the right, and follow us on Facebook and Twitter.

Trials and Tribulation: Life in an Iron Lung

This Day in North Carolina History - Thu, 09/14/2017 - 01:00

On September 13, 1948, 11-year-old Martha Mason of Lattimore in Cleveland County came down with polio on the very day her parents buried her older brother Gaston who had succumbed to the disease. They were both victims of a major polio outbreak that year. Martha survived, but became a quadriplegic dependent on the iron lung for the next 60 years.

Mason’s condition did not inhibit her spirit or intellectual curiosity. With the help of parents, teachers and friends she graduated first in her high school class and then summa cum laude from Wake Forest in 1960. She wrote newspaper articles with her mother taking dictation, until incapacitating illnesses struck both her parents.

Mason chose to remain at home in the iron lung despite the development of other, less restrictive ventilators, and she was known in Lattimore for her spark and outgoing personality.

In the 1990s, the advent of the personal computer and assistive technology broadened her reach and allowed her to realize her dream of writing. She wrote a memoir of her life in the small town — Breath: A Lifetime in the Rhythm of an Iron Lung, published in 2003.

Mason was also the subject of a documentary film, and she appeared in another about the effort to eradicate polio. At her death in 2009, she was believed to be the longest survivor of a life lived in the 800-pound device.

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For more about North Carolina’s history, arts and culture, visit Cultural Resources online. To receive these updates automatically each day, make sure you subscribe by email using the box on the right, and follow us on FacebookTwitter and Pinterest.

Village People’s Cowboy Hailed from Raleigh

This Day in North Carolina History - Thu, 09/14/2017 - 01:00

On September 13, 1952, singer Randy Jones of the disco group Village People was born in Raleigh.

Jones grew up in Wake County, graduating from Enloe High School in 1970. After attending the North Carolina School of the Arts and UNC, he began to dance and act professionally in New York City.

The concept of the Village People group was the brainchild of record producer Jacques Morali. Jones was cast as the original cowboy in 1977, and remained with the act for three years. The idea of a concept group was not a new one, but the Village People were imbued with such energy, irony and campy enthusiasm that they were wildly successful. In fact, some form of the group has been performing since the Village People scored their U.S. first hit with “Macho Man” in 1978.

The group racked up a number of big hits in the late 1970s and early 1980s with “Y.M.C.A.,” “In the Navy,” “Go West” and “Can’t Stop the Music” among others. That period of great creativity was the group’s heyday.

Jones, appropriately, lives in Greenwich Village. He continues to perform and act.

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Bounty Off Cape Hatteras in Shipwreck of the Central America

This Day in North Carolina History - Thu, 09/14/2017 - 01:00

On September 12, 1857, the S.S. Central America sank 200 miles off Cape Hatteras with great loss of life. The side-wheel steamer was bound for New York from Havana when she encountered a hurricane and sprung a leak.

In addition to about 500 passengers and a crew of 100 aboard, the Central America was carrying mail and more than $1.5 million in gold, including coins minted in San Francisco. Around 145 people aboard the ill-fated ship were rescued by three vessels that were in the vicinity of the wreck at the time of the sinking, but the rest perished.

The great loss of gold was a contributing factor to the Panic of 1857, a short yet severe economic downturn fueled by a loss of confidence in the banking system. The panic was marked by the suspension of gold payments by financial institutions, the failing of businesses, factory closings and a rise in unemployment.

Treasure hunters discovered the wreck of the Central America in 1988, and salvage of the gold began but was halted by a court order in 1991. In April 2014, Odyssey Marine Exploration resumed recovery of the Central America’s lost treasure. To date more than 13,500 coins, bars and ingots have been recovered.

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For more about North Carolina’s history, arts and culture, visit Cultural Resources online. To receive these updates automatically each day, make sure you subscribe by email using the box on the right, and follow us on FacebookTwitter and Pinterest.

Jurist W. A. Hoke of Lincolnton

This Day in North Carolina History - Thu, 09/14/2017 - 01:00

On September 12, 1925, prominent jurist William Alexander Hoke died.

Born in Lincolnton in 1851, Hoke attended Lincolnton Male Academy and later studied law under Chief Justice Richmond Pearson at Richmond Hill. He was admitted to the bar in 1872 and was elected to the North Carolina House of Representatives in 1889.

Hoke’s career on the bench began when he was elected in 1890 as judge for the Superior Court. He was elected as an associate justice of the North Carolina Supreme Court in 1904, and served continuously until he was appointed chief justice in 1924 upon the death of Walter Clark.

He resigned in March 1925 due to failing health.

Hoke regarded as the high point of his life his part in chairing the commission to secure for the National Statuary Hall in Washington, D.C., a statue of his friend, former Governor Zebulon B. Vance. He delivered the presentation address when the statue was dedicated in 1916.

It is said that Hoke was sitting in a chair at Rex Hospital telling his doctor about that day when he died suddenly of a heart attack.

For more about North Carolina’s history, arts, nature and culture, visit DNCR online. To receive these updates automatically each day, make sure you subscribe by email using the box on the right, and follow us on Facebook and Twitter.

Thomas Burke, Governor as Prisoner of War

This Day in North Carolina History - Thu, 09/14/2017 - 01:00

On September 12, 1781, Thomas Burke, then only three months into his term as governor, was captured in Hillsborough by Loyalist raiders commanded by Colonel David Fanning.

The state at the time was ravaged by war and on the brink of anarchy. The recent departures of both the Continental and British armies left roving bands of Patriot and Loyalist guerrillas in their wake that were subject to no civil or military authority.

Burke, who was in Hillsborough to organize militia activities, was surprised by Fanning and surrendered after a brief fight. Burke was taken to Wilmington and then South Carolina, paroled and confined to James Island to await a prisoner exchange.

Fearing that his life was in danger, however, Burke escaped from his very loose confinement and returned to North Carolina and the governorship, violating both his parole and the code of honor in the eyes of many of his contemporaries. When the embittered Burke convened the General Assembly in April 1782, his rather ambiguous offer to retire from public office was accepted almost without remark. Having served only 10 months as governor, two of those as a prisoner, he returned to Hillsborough a ruined and deeply disillusioned man.

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A Lift to Winter Tourism, Cataloochee

This Day in North Carolina History - Thu, 09/14/2017 - 01:00

On September 11, 1961, North Carolina’s first ski resort, Cataloochee Ski Slopes, was incorporated. The Haywood County recreation area opened to skiers on December 22.

Tom Alexander, the resort’s owner, was a true pioneer, as Cataloochee was not only the first ski resort in the state, but the first south of Virginia. He and wife Judith operated Cataloochee Ranch on top of Fie Top Mountain, which offered horseback riding, fishing, hiking and lodge and cabin accommodations during the summer months.

The plan for an all-season resort was driven in part by Alexander’s desire to keep his staff employed year-round.

Because skiing was new  to the area, Alexander and his family had to learn by trial and error about such things as creating a functioning tow line. In order to cater to novice southern skiers, Cataloochee’s first slopes were not steep and had no turns or moguls.

The novelty quickly attracted visitors from across the South and was a boon to local hotel and cottage court owners, who were delighted when their accommodations booked up during the winter months.

North Carolina now boasts six ski resorts in a number of western counties, contributing significantly to winter tourism in the region.

For more about North Carolina’s history, arts, nature and culture, visit DNCR online. To receive these updates automatically each day, make sure you subscribe by email using the box on the right, and follow us on Facebook and Twitter.

Completion of the Blue Ridge Parkway’s Missing Link, 1987

This Day in North Carolina History - Thu, 09/14/2017 - 01:00

On September 11, 1987, the Linn Cove Viaduct—part of the Blue Ridge Parkway—was completed in Avery County. Internationally recognized as an engineering marvel, the curved bridge spans 1,243 feet and hugs an environmentally sensitive area of Grandfather Mountain.

Construction began in 1979 and cost about $10 million to complete. The S-curve bridge consists of more than 150 precast individual segments joined together on Grandfather Mountain with epoxy glue and tension cables. Each of the segments weighs about 50 tons and is a different shape; only one is square and straight.

To minimize damage to the environment, the bridge served as its own building platform. Workers placed one segment after another using the bridge as their access road. As a consequence the viaduct proved that bridges could both achieve their transportation function and preserve the environment at the same time.

Since its opening, the viaduct has received numerous design awards including a Presidential Design Award in 1984 and the American Consulting Engineers Council Award for Engineering Excellence in 1985.

It is operated by the National Park Service as part of the Blue Ridge Parkway.

Explore the history of the parkway on Driving Through Time: The Digital Blue Ridge Parkway, a project of UNC-Chapel Hill.

For more about North Carolina’s history, arts and culture, visit Cultural Resources online. To receive these updates automatically each day, subscribe by email using the box on the right and follow us on Facebook,Twitter and Pinterest.

Moses Hopkins, From Slavery to Liberia via Franklinton

This Day in North Carolina History - Thu, 09/14/2017 - 01:00

On September 11, 1885, Moses A. Hopkins was appointed Minister to Liberia.

Born into slavery in Virginia in 1846, Hopkins worked as a cook in Union camps during the Civil War. In 1866, at age 20, he learned to read, launching his lifelong interest in education. When he completed his degree in theology in 1877, he was the first African American graduate of Auburn Seminary in New York. Ordained by the Presbyterian Church in 1877, Hopkins moved to Franklinton.

In Franklinton, Hopkins founded Mt. Pleasant Presbyterian Church and Albion Academy. He led Albion through its formative years, and published a newspaper, The Freedmen’s Friend, with his wife, Carrie. The only known issue is from August 1884.

When Hopkins was appointed Minister to Liberia, he reported to Monrovia within a month. He died there in August 1886. His place of burial is unknown.

For more about North Carolina’s history, arts and culture, visit Cultural Resources online. To receive these updates automatically each day, make sure you subscribe by email using the box on the right, and follow us on Facebook and Twitter.

Viaduct an Engineering Marvel

This Day in North Carolina History - Thu, 09/14/2017 - 01:00

On September 11, 1987, the Linn Cove Viaduct—part of the Blue Ridge Parkway—was completed in Avery County. Internationally recognized as an engineering marvel, the curved bridge spans 1,243 feet and hugs an especially sensitive area of Grandfather Mountain.

Construction began in 1979 and cost about $10 million. The S-curve bridge consists of more than 150 precast individual segments joined together on Grandfather Mountain with epoxy glue and tension cables. Each of the segments weighs about 50 tons and is a different shape; only one is square and straight.

To minimize damage to the environment, the bridge served as its own building platform. Workers placed one segment after another using the bridge as their access road. As a consequence the viaduct proved that bridges could both achieve their transportation function and preserve the environment at the same time.

Since its opening, the viaduct has received numerous design awards including a Presidential Design Award in 1984 and the American Consulting Engineers Council Award for Engineering Excellence in 1985. It is operated by the National Park Service as part of the Blue Ridge Parkway.

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For more about North Carolina’s history, arts and culture, visit Cultural Resources online. To receive these updates automatically each day, make sure you subscribe by email using the box on the right, and follow us on FacebookTwitter and Pinterest.

Aquariums Date to Bicentennial Year

This Day in North Carolina History - Thu, 09/14/2017 - 01:00

On September 10, 1976, the facilities now known as the North Carolina Aquariums opened to the public for the first time. Their mission was to promote the awareness, understanding, appreciation and conservation of the diverse natural and cultural resources of North Carolina’s ocean, estuaries, rivers, streams and other aquatic environments.

Known as the North Carolina Marine Resources Centers until 1986, the aquariums were originally intended more as research facilities than as destinations for visitors.

A $53 million construction program in the early 1990s dramatically expanded the footprint of each facility and offered more opportunities for visitors to interact with nature. Jennette’s Pier became part of the state aquarium system in 2011.

Each aquarium and Jennette’s Pier highlights the unique aquatic environments that can be found in the region in which it is located and in different locations across the state. Together they welcome more that 1 million visitors annually and are rated among the best places to visit across the state.

Helping to conserve North Carolina’s unique coastal environment and conducting cutting-edge research continue to be central to the aquariums’ mission.

For more about North Carolina’s history, arts, nature and culture, visit DNCR online. To receive these updates automatically each day, make sure you subscribe by email using the box on the right, and follow us on Facebook and Twitter.

Joshua Lawrence and Schism among North Carolina Baptists

This Day in North Carolina History - Thu, 09/14/2017 - 01:00

On September 10, 1778, Joshua Lawrence, Baptist minister and one of the founding members of the Primitive Baptist movement, was born on his family’s farm in Edgecombe County.

Lawrence was called to the ministry in 1801, when he was 23. He became pastor of the Falls of the Tar Baptist Church, later founded the Tarboro Baptist Church and led that church until its division in 1829. Though he was known for his commanding presence in the pulpit and as an eloquent preacher, he didn’t have any formal training as minister.

In 1803, Lawrence became a delegate to the Kehukee Baptist Association, and became embroiled in the struggle between the missionary and anti-missionary supporters within the North Carolina Baptist movement. Lawrence believed that it was important to preserve “the Christian religion in its primitive state,” and insisted that those in the ministry should not use their permission for material gain.

The author of a number of pamphlets supporting what would later become the Primitive Baptist Movement, Lawrence supported the idea of cutting ties with the missionary Baptist movement that would later form the Baptist State Convention of North Carolina.

Lawrence continued to preach until his death in 1843.

One of Lawrence’s books is available online from UNC-Chapel Hill, which also holds many of Lawrence’s personal papers.

For more about North Carolina’s history, arts and culture, visit Cultural Resources online. To receive these updates automatically each day, make sure you subscribe by email using the box on the right, and follow us on FacebookTwitter and Pinterest.

Road for Charles Kuralt Began, Ended in North Carolina

This Day in North Carolina History - Thu, 09/14/2017 - 01:00

On September 10, 1934, celebrated CBS journalist, television news anchor and bestselling author Charles Kuralt was born in Wilmington.

The winner of 12 Emmys and two Peabody Awards, Kuralt showed early promise as a writer. Voted “Most Likely to Succeed” by Charlotte’s Central High School class of 1951, the budding writer attended UNC, where he was editor of The Daily Tar Heel.

Kuralt’s first professional job was with the Charlotte News, where he wrote an award winning column called “Charles Kuralt’s People.” In 1957, at age 23, he became the youngest correspondent ever hired by CBS News.

A decade later, during a period of war and riots, he experimented with a good-news segment on The CBS Evening News with Walter Cronkite. Called “On the Road,” the feature ran for more than 20 years. During that time, Kuralt and his crew wore out six campers, crisscrossing the country’s back roads and telling stories about ordinary Americans. He later anchored CBS News Sunday Morning before retiring in 1994.

Kuralt died in July 1997, at age 62, of complications from lupus. At his request, he was buried in the Old Chapel Hill Cemetery on UNC’s campus.

For more about North Carolina’s history, arts and culture, visit Cultural Resources online. To receive these updates automatically each day, make sure you subscribe by email using the box on the right, and follow us on Facebook and Twitter.

The Rutherford Trace and the Destruction of Nikwasi

This Day in North Carolina History - Thu, 09/14/2017 - 01:00

On September 10, 1776, during the American Revolution, North Carolina General Griffith Rutherford attacked and burned the Cherokee town of Nikwasi as part of what became known as the “Rutherford Trace.” It was part of a united effort by North Carolina, South Carolina and Virginia to weaken the Cherokee Indians before they could fully ally and coordinate attacks with British troops.  The campaign also was retribution for the punishment enacted by the native people against the newly arrived settlers in the west.

Nikwasi covered approximately 100 acres in what is now Macon County, and was a spiritual and ceremonial center for the Cherokee, who inhabited it until 1819 when they were forced off their lands. The present day town of Franklin was built on it, and a large mound in the commercial district is all that remains of the former Cherokee presence.

The expedition decimated many Cherokee towns in just a few weeks. The destruction of crops, livestock and food stores effectively ended the military threat of the Cherokee. As refugees, surviving over the winter on wild game, nuts and fruits, the remaining Cherokee signed peace treaties the following year.

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For more about North Carolina’s history, arts and culture, visit Cultural Resources online. To receive these updates automatically each day, make sure you subscribe by email using the box on the right, and follow us on FacebookTwitter and Pinterest.

Heroine of the American Revolution Martha Bell

This Day in North Carolina History - Thu, 09/14/2017 - 01:00

On September 9, 1820, Martha McFarlane McGee Bell, heroine of the American Revolution, died at her home in Randolph County. The wife of a Deep River gristmill owner, Bell and her husband were ardent supporters of American independence, and their mill became a gathering place for local patriots during the war. There is also evidence that the Continental Army used the mill to store supplies.

Bell’s credit as heroine, though, stems from an incident following the Battle of Guilford Courthouse. British General Charles Cornwallis camped at the Bells’ Mill for two days, needing to grind corn for his troops and time to rest and treat the wounded. Bell treated the British hospitably and nursed the injured in return for Cornwallis’s promise that his troops would do her property no harm. The British left without incident.

When American General “Lighthorse” Harry Lee arrived at the mill shortly after the British departed, he encouraged Bell to visit Cornwallis at his next camp on a ruse related to property damage. Bell acted as a spy for the patriots, noting details as to Cornwallis’ troops and supplies.

A monument on the grounds of Guilford Courthouse National Military Park honors Bell.

For more about North Carolina’s history, arts and culture, visit Cultural Resources online. To receive these updates automatically each day, make sure you subscribe by email using the box on the right, and follow us on Facebook and Twitter.

Our Only Miss America

This Day in North Carolina History - Thu, 09/14/2017 - 01:00

On September 9, 1961, Maria Beale Fletcher of Asheville became the first—and, so far, only— Miss North Carolina to be crowned Miss America.

Born June 23, 1942, she was the oldest child of Charles Beale and Margaret Gatley Fletcher, a nationally touring dance duo. When she reached school age, her parents decided to settle in Asheville, where they founded and operated the Fletcher School of Dance and the Land of the Sky Civic Ballet. Fletcher won her first trophy at age 7 for singing and dancing at Asheville’s Mountain Youth Jamboree. In 1960, she graduated from A.C. Reynolds High School and headed to New York City to fulfill her dream of being a Radio City Music Hall Rockette. That same year, the 19-year-old became Miss Asheville. Six months later, she claimed the Miss North Carolina title.

At the national pageant in Atlantic City, N.J., Fletcher won the preliminary swimsuit competition and, for talent, tap danced to a recording of herself singing “Somebody Loves Me.” With her Miss America scholarship winnings, she earned a degree at Vanderbilt University and became a successful businesswoman, wife and mother. Today, the 71-year-old still performs, writes and is an environmental and animal rights activist.

For more about North Carolina’s history, arts and culture, visit Cultural Resources online. To receive these updates automatically each day, make sure you subscribe by email using the box on the right, and follow us on FacebookTwitter and Pinterest.

The Man Who Destroyed the Recording Industry

This Day in North Carolina History - Thu, 09/14/2017 - 01:00

On September 9, 2009, Bennie Lydell Glover of Shelby was indicted in Alexandria, Virginia, for felony conspiracy to commit copyright infringement.

Two years earlier Glover left work to encounter Cleveland County deputies alongside his truck. As they arresteAdd Newd him, the FBI was simultaneously raiding his house.

The popular assumption is that Napster, created in 1999, was chiefly responsible for the plummet in sales of recorded music. But recent accounts make clear that Glover was there first and created the most damage.

Glover, employed at Polygram’s CD pressing plant in Kings Mountain, began slipping disks out of the factory as early as 1994.  He regularly took movies and video games but found a market for rap CDs, especially artists like Jay Z, Eminem, and in time Kanye West.

He would drop off bags of disks for resale at Shelby barbershops but, via Internet file-sharing, found listeners all across the country. Polygram fought back, installing increased security measures, but Glover long evaded the law, sneaking CDs out behind oversize belt buckles past wand-wielding guards.

Glover, who testified against his co-conspirator, pled guilty and served three months in prison. Meanwhile sales of recorded music shrank with total revenue cut in half in the period between 2000 and 2010.

For more about North Carolina’s history, arts, nature and culture, visit DNCR online. To receive these updates automatically each day, make sure you subscribe by email using the box on the right, and follow us on Facebook and Twitter.

Colington Island, a Reminder of the Proprietary Era

This Day in North Carolina History - Thu, 09/14/2017 - 01:00

On September 8, 1663, the first transfer of land under the Lords Proprietors in Carolina took place. The grant was made to Sir John Colleton, himself one of the Lords Proprietors of Carolina.

The piece of land transferred was what was then called Carlyle or Colleton Island, and is now called Colington Island in Dare County. Colleton, a planter who also dabbled in business, finance and politics, already had large New World holdings in Barbados. Although he had returned to England in 1660, he had hopes of expanding his West Indies operations into the American colonies.

Colleton’s agent, Captain John Whittie, established a plantation on the property during the winter of 1664 and 1665. At first the island was used primarily for raising cattle and horses, but eventually crops including tobacco, corn and grapes were planted.

Whittie also eventually realized a profitable secondary source of income by selling oil extracted from whales that washed up on the shore. Peter Carteret, nephew of one of the proprietors and later governor of the colony, joined Colleton as a partner in the colonial venture. He arrived in the spring of 1665 to take charge of the plantation. Hurricanes, drought and floods plagued the settlement, which failed by the 1670s.

For more, check out the book The Proprietors of Carolina from North Carolina Historical Publications.

For more about North Carolina’s history, arts and culture, visit Cultural Resources online. To receive these updates automatically each day, make sure you subscribe by email using the box on the right, and follow us on FacebookTwitter and Pinterest.