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Law and legal history
Act of Pardon and Oblivion
by Troxler, Carole Watterson. The Act of Pardon and Oblivion was passed at Hillsborough by the North Carolina General Assembly of 1783, the state's first legislature to convene after the Revolutionary War. The act embodied the [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Admiralty Courts
by Cain, Robert J. Admiralty Courts in the colonial era dealt with maritime issues requiring adjudication, including both criminal and noncriminal matters. Although the royal Charters of 1663 and 1665 granted power to [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Advisory Budget Commission
by Williams, Wiley J. The Advisory Budget Commission (ABC) was created when the General Assembly of 1925 enacted the Executive Budget Act to vest the governor with more direct supervision of state agencies and [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Alcoholic Beverage Control Commission
by Maupin, Armistead Jones. Alcoholic Beverage Control Commission by Armistead Jones Maupin, 2006 See Also: Prohibition; Anti-Saloon League; Temperance Movement The Alcoholic Beverage Control Commission was created by [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Alexander, William Julius
by Kirkman, Roger N. William Julius Alexander, speaker of the North Carolina House of Commons, solicitor, and superintendent of the Charlotte branch of the U.S. Mint, was born in Salisbury, the son of William Alexander. [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Allen, William
by Parker, Mattie Erma E. In November 1681, Allen was a member of the council and ex officio justice of the general court. That he held his council seat by vote of the assembly indicates that he was also a member of the [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Allen, William Reynolds
by Macfie, John. William Reynolds Allen, lawyer and associate justice of the North Carolina supreme court, was born at Kenansville, Duplin County. His father was William A. Allen, lawyer, state senator, and [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Anti-Saloon League
by Orvedahl, Ginny. The North Carolina Anti-Saloon League was organized in 1902, with J. W. Bailey as chairman of its executive committee. Bailey, a native of Warrenton, was also a U.S. senator. Those involved in the [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Arnett, Silas W.
by Carraway, Gertrude S., Bowers, Thomas A. Arnett, Silas W. by Thomas A. Bowers and Gertrude S. Carraway, 1979 fl. 1783–1806 Silas W. Arnett, was a printer in New Bern as early as 12 Dec. 1783, for the senate on that date rejected a [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Arrears
by Carpenter, Joanne G. Arrears by Joanne G. Carpenter, 2006 See also: Land Grants; Receiver General; Rent Rolls; Quitrents; State Taxes Arrears, when applied to quitrents and taxes in colonial North Carolina, [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Attachment Clause
by Lennon, Donald R. The Attachment Clause in North Carolina colonial law allowed for the garnishment of the property of nonresidents in certain cases of debt. The controversy surrounding British attempts to delete this [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Balanced Budget Amendment
by Ferrell, Joseph S. The Balanced Budget Amendment, sponsored by Rep. John Gamble of Lincoln County, was adopted as part of the North Carolina Constitution in 1977. The amendment requires that the state conduct its [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Bank Holiday of 1933
by Ireland, Robert E. Between the stock market crash of October 1929 and mid-March 1933, 215 North Carolina banks, with a combined $110,854,000 in assets, failed. Bank runs had increased in early 1933, prompting the [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Bastardy
by Stevenson, George. Bastardy, as a legal term, designates the civil condition of a child born under illegitimate circumstances. Under English common law, children born out of lawful wedlock were classed as bastards. In [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Bayard v. Singleton
by Hollins, Andy. Bayard v. Singleton was possibly the first legal decision in the United States in which a court nullified a law because it was found to be unconstitutional. During the American Revolution the [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Beat the Bounds
by Powell, William S. To "beat the bounds," or "do procession," meant walking the boundaries of a property and, in ancient times, striking certain places with a rod in the presence of witnesses. In the American colonies, [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Benefit of Clergy
by Spindel, Donna J. Benefit of Clergy was a colonial legal term rooted in medieval English law that allowed a person convicted of a capital crime to receive a special pardon and escape execution. Initially, only [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Bill of Rights
by Childs, T. Mike. North Carolina's original copy of the Bill of Rights, stolen in 1865, has had a long and checkered journey before it finally returned to the state in 2005.It was created in 1789, when Congress [...] (from NCpedia.)
Bishop of Durham Clause
by Cain, Robert J. The Carolina charters of 1663 and 1665 contained an important provision conferring upon the eight Lords Proprietors of Carolina and their successors the power to "have, hold, use, exercise, and [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Bishop of London
by Nelson, John K. During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the bishop of London had extradiocesan responsibility for Anglican congregations and clergy outside the British Isles. The precise legal and [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Black Codes
by Harris, William C. Black Codes by William C. Harris, 2006 See Also: Slave Codes Soon after the Civil War, southern states governed by Presidential Reconstruction (1865-67) adopted racially discriminatory laws, [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Blank Patents
by Powell, William S. Blank patents were warrants to survey land for grants that had blank spaces to be filled in later with the description of the land. They were issued by colonial land office officials for their own [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Blue Laws
by Williams, Wiley J. "Blue laws" refer to statutes designed to enforce morality as some lawmakers understand it, such as restricting the hours that stores can open on Sundays or the sale of alcoholic beverages. The term [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Board of War
by Troxler, George W. Board of War by George W. Troxler, 2006 The imminent invasion of North Carolina following the British Revolutionary War victory at Camden, S.C., on 16 Aug. 1780 precipitated a crisis in the [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Bragg Committee
by Harris, William C. In 1868-69 North Carolina's Reconstruction government extended $27.83 million in the form of bonds and stocks to 18 railroad companies in the state. Although it was mainly zeal for internal [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Brown Bagging
by Coffin, Alex. Brown bagging was the widespread practice of customers bringing liquor into restaurants in brown paper bags, purchasing soft drink set-ups and then mixing their own drinks at the table. Brown bagging [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Caledonia
by Gaddis, Elijah. Caledonia, located just south of the Roanoke River in Halifax County, North Carolina, has undergone many changes in its 300 year history. Starting in the early 18th century, Caledonia was settled by [...] (from NCpedia.)
Capital Punishment
by Vocci, Robert Blair, Yancey, Noel. North Carolina's administration of the death penalty dates back to the colonial era, when capital punishment was regulated by English common law and legislation enacted by the colonial Assembly. [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Chance, William Claudius, Sr.
by Caldwell, John T. William Claudius Chance, Sr., educator and humanitarian, was born in Parmele. His parents were W. V. and Alice Chance; his grandparents, who reared him, were Bryant and Penethia Chance; all were [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Chancery Court
by Towles, Louis P. Chancery Court, or the Court of Equity and Conscience, was the highest of several courts-Admiralty, Chancery, Claims, Palatine, and General Court-that originated in the Grand Council of early North [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Charlotte Three
by Powell, William S. Charlotte Three by William S. Powell, 2006 "Charlotte Three" was the term applied by journalists in the 1970s to James Grant, T. J. Reddy, and Charles Parker, African American civil rights [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Claims Committees
by Ferrell, Joseph S. Claims committees were part of both houses of the General Assembly until 1949. North Carolina inherited its fundamental legal system from Great Britain, and under the common law of England, the [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Clerk of Court
by Towles, Louis P. The Clerk of Court in North Carolina is responsible for the day-to-day operation of courts. Appointed by the Crown clerk or secretary of the province, his duties in 1669 included recording deeds, [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Coastal Area Management Act
by Stick, David. The Coastal Area Management Act was introduced in the 1973 session of the North Carolina General Assembly in response to the 1972 federal Coastal Zone Management Act, which demanded solutions to [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Colonial Agents
by Higginbotham, Don. Colonial agents were authorized individuals in London representing the interests of the North American provinces. They conducted business for their respective colonial governments and passed [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Committee of One Hundred
by Ireland, Robert E. Committee of One Hundred by Robert E. Ireland, 2006 Between 1922 and 1926 the North Carolina Conference for Social Service devoted much attention to crime and prison [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Common Law
by Orth, John V. Common Law is the system of legal rules developed over the centuries by English judges in their decisions on cases. Being familiar to the early settlers of North Carolina, the common law was [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Concessions and Agreement
by Paden, John. The Concessions and Agreement was a document issued by the Lords Proprietors of Carolina on 7 Jan. 1665 to a group of Barbadian planters represented by Maj. William Yeamans. Although the Barbadians [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Confiscation Acts
by Bell, John L. Confiscation Acts were passed by the North Carolina General Assembly from 1776 through the 1780s to confiscate the property of Loyalists. This was done to punish and control the Loyalists as well as [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Congressional Districts
by Justesen, Benjamin R. Congressional Districts in North Carolina, as in other states, have varied widely in size, shape, and number since the state ratified the U.S. Constitution in 1789. The number of congressional [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Constitution, U.S., North Carolina Signers of
by Powell, William S. Constitution, U.S., North Carolina Signers of by William S. Powell, 2006 See also: Representatives to the Constitutional Convention The U.S. Constitution, completed on 17 Sept. 1787, was [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Convention of 1865
by Alexander, Roberta Sue. On 29 May 1865 President Andrew Johnson unveiled two proclamations designed to bring North Carolina back into the Union after the Civil War. (Similar announcements affecting most of the other [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Convention of 1868
by Faulkner, Ronnie W. Convention of 1868 by Ronnie W. Faulkner, 2006 See also: State Constitution; Black and Tan Constitution; Convention of 1835 (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina); 1835 Constitutional [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Convict Labor
by Mancini, Matthew J. Convict labor and convict leasing, the practice of using convicts for work in the public or private sector, was common throughout the South after the Civil War. Its history in North Carolina was [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Council Extraordinary
by Norris, David A. Council Extraordinary by David A. Norris, 2006 The Council Extraordinary was a committee established by the General Assembly to exercise executive powers jointly with the governor in [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Counterfeiting
by Norris, David A. Counterfeiting plagued North Carolina throughout its early history, with criminals making and passing fraudulent coins even before the colony issued its own money. North Carolina distributed its [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
County Commissioners
by Case, Steven, Lewis, Henry W., Ferrell, Joseph S. North Carolina counties are legal entities capable of holding and managing property and possessed of many powers conferred on by law. Through its board of commissioners, the county exercises its [...] (from School of Government, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.)
Court of Pleas and Quarter Sessions
by Lewis, Johanna Miller. The Court of Pleas and Quarter Sessions served as the civil, administrative, and judicial arms of North Carolina county government beginning in the Proprietary period (1663-1729). Staffed by justices [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Courthouse Ring
by Norris, David A. "Courthouse ring" refers to a group of politicians and government officials who, by controlling local appointments, increased their power and profits through the collection of fees and the awarding [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Crime Control and Public Safety, Department of
by Williams, Wiley J. The 1977 General Assembly passed legislation to restructure and rename the Department of Military and Veterans Affairs (DMVA) as the Department of Crime Control and Public Safety. The new department [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Crime rates
by Daniels, Dennis F. The frequency of major crimes in North Carolina-including murder, rape, robbery, aggravated assault, burglary, and larceny-generally has increased with the size of the state's population. Statistics [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Crop Lien System
by Johnson, K. Todd. Crop lien system was inaugurated in North Carolina in March 1867, when the General Assembly passed an Act to Secure Advances for Agricultural Purposes. Most former Confederate states passed similar [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Curfew
by Powell, William S. Curfew is a term derived from the words "cover fire," a command issued by officials directing retirement for the night or restricting movement to a designated area or period. Authority to order this [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Declaration of Rights
by Orth, John V. The first North Carolina Declaration of Rights, modeled in part on comparable declarations in Virginia, Maryland, and Pennsylvania, was adopted on behalf of the state by the Fifth Provincial Congress [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Divorce
by Semcer, Melissa. Divorce, like marriage, is a civil contract between the parties involved. Religious and social attitudes toward marriage and property rights made divorce in nineteenth-century North Carolina rare but [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Driver's Licenses
by Powell, William S. Driver's licenses became mandatory in North Carolina with the passage of the Uniform Driver's License Act, introduced in the General Assembly in January 1935 by Senator Carroll W. Weathers after a [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Easter Monday Holiday
by Williford, Jo Ann. The Monday after Easter, rather than Good Friday as in every other state, was a legal holiday in North Carolina for 52 years. The bill establishing the holiday was introduced by Senator Paul Davis [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Electric Power
by McGee, Barry. Electric Power by Barry McGee, 2006 See also: Carolina Power & Light Company; Duke Power Company; Nuclear Energy; Rural Electrification; Southern Power Company Electric power, at the [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Emancipation
by Nash, Steven E. Emancipation by Steven E. Nash, 2006 See also: Contrabands; African Americans - Part 3: Emancipation Emancipation of enslaved African Americans in the South became official on 1 Jan. [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Entails
by Orth, John V. Entails were legal arrangements by which ownership of land was confined within a single family, passing at death from generation to generation. Known in legal jargon as a "fee tail," an entailed [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Equal Rights Amendment
by Faulkner, Ronnie W., Vocci, Robert Blair. The Equal Rights Amendment (ERA), the proposed Twenty-seventh Amendment to the U.S. Constitution prohibiting gender discrimination, was passed by Congress on 22 Mar. 1972 and then forwarded to the [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Ervin, Samuel James, Jr.
by Ducey, Mitchell F. Ervin, Samuel James, Jr. by Mitchell F. Ducey, 1986 27 Sept. 1896–23 Apr. 1985 Samuel James Ervin, Jr., lawyer, jurist, legislator, congressman, and United States senator, was descended from [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Escheats
by Orth, John V. Escheats are items of property owned by a person who dies without leaving a will or known heirs, which therefore pass to the state. Technically limited to real estate, the term is commonly applied to [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Estates Records
by Tetterton, Beverly. Estates records are the documents generated by the disposition of a deceased person's property. They are created by executors (named in wills) or administrators (appointed by the court or an officer [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Eugenics legislation in North Carolina
by Gregory, Lisa. Eugenics legislation in North Carolina by Lisa Gregory, 2010. See also: Eugenics; Eugenics Board Linked below are North Carolina legislative acts relating to eugenics found in the North Carolina [...] (from NC Digital Collections.)
Ewart, Hamilton Glover
by Powell, William S. Hamilton Glover Ewart, attorney, congressman, and judge, was born in Columbia, S.C., the son of James Beckett and Mary A. McMahon Ewart. He was valedictorian of his graduating class at the University [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Executive Organization Acts
by Williams, Wiley J. The General Assembly of 1969 approved seven amendments to the state constitution to be submitted to the North Carolina electorate. On 3 Nov. 1970 voters accepted six of these amendments, one of which [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Exodusters
by Steelman, Lala Carr. Exodusters were African Americans who fled North Carolina because of economic and political grievances after the Reconstruction era. Although there was a steady trickle of black emigrants from the [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Fee System
by Price, William S., Jr. The Fee System, involving the collection of money to cover administrative services and pay government officials, was transported to British America virtually intact by arriving colonists. Proprietary [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Flogging
by Powell, William S. Flogging, or severe physical punishment with the use of a stick, rod, or leather strap, was used in colonial North Carolina for disobedient sailors, servants, or military and political prisoners. [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Fortuna
by Fish, Peter Graham. The Fortuna case, decided by U.S. Supreme Court chief justice John Marshall in the U.S. Circuit Court for the District of North Carolina on an appeal from Judge Henry Potter's district court, [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Fourteenth Amendment
by Pruden, William H., III. The Fourteenth Amendment, ratified on 28 July 1868 as one of the "Reconstruction amendments," added to the U.S. Constitution such fundamental principles as citizenship and equal protection under the [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Free Suffrage
by Powell, William S. Free suffrage was a political concept heatedly discussed among North Carolinians in the mid-nineteenth century. The ownership of 50 acres of property or the payment of taxes had been a prerequisite [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Freeholders
by Powell, William S. Freeholders were free persons who owned land. The Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina in 1669 required that, among other things, candidates must be freeholders to qualify for office holding and [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Fundamental Constitutions
by Bell, John L. The Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina, called the "Grand Model," provided the form of government and society for the Carolina colony from 1669 to 1698. The Lords Proprietors of Carolina first [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Gambling
by Homrighaus, Ruth E. Although illegal in North Carolina since 1764, when a law was enacted limiting personal winnings in any game of chance to five shillings a day, gambling continues to flourish in both legitimate and [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Gaston, William
by Bowman, Charles H., Jr. William Gaston, lawyer, legislator, congressman, and jurist, was born in New Bern. His father, Alexander Gaston of Huguenot ancestry, was a native of Ireland, trained in medicine, and served as a [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
General Court of North Carolina
by Towles, Louis P. The General Court of North Carolina was formed as an outgrowth of a grant of powers by the English Crown to the Lords Proprietors of Carolina in 1663 and 1665. The Proprietors were charged by these [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Governor's Council
by Price, William S., Jr. During the Proprietary period in North Carolina (before the establishment of royal government in 1731), the "governor's council," precursor to the modern Council of State, was a group of 6 to 12 men [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Grandfather Clause
by Hunt, James L. The Grandfather Clause was an important component of the 1900 constitutional amendment restricting North Carolina's class of eligible voters. The disfranchisement amendment provided that voters must [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Granville Grant and District
by Mitchell, Thornton W. When Charles II granted "Carolina" to the eight Lords Proprietors in 1663 and 1665, he gave them an area that extended, in modern terms, from south of Daytona Beach, Fla., to the Virginia-North [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Granville's Devisee v. Allen
by Fish, Peter Graham. In 1805 U.S. Supreme Court chief justice John Marshall and district judge Henry Potter, sitting in the U.S. Circuit Court for the District of North Carolina, considered the claim to the Earl [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Great Deed of Grant
by Smith, Edward. Great Deed of Grant (1668) was a petition from the Lords Proprietors of Carolina permitting settlers in Albemarle County to hold land under terms equivalent to those offered settlers in Virginia. The [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Headrights
by Powell, William S. Headrights, or landrights, was a term applied in the colonial period to the system of granting unclaimed land to persons who imported new settlers to the Carolina colony. In 1663 the Crown divided [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Highway Patrol
by Ireland, Robert E. The enormous growth of motorized traffic after World War I created a problem for law enforcement officials in North Carolina. Although more than 100,000 automobiles traveled the expanding highway [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Hue and Cry
by Powell, William S. "Hue and cry" was a term used in English criminal law as early as 1275 and commonly applied in colonial North Carolina. Any person aware of a robbery or felony was required to raise a hue and cry [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Impeachment
by Williford, Jo Ann. Impeachment is a process whereby accusations are brought against a civil official by a legislative body. Legally, the term applies only to an indictment, but in practice it often refers to the actual [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Imprisonment for Debt
by Voigt, Robert C. From the time of the earliest colonial settlements until the mid-nineteenth century, imprisonment for debt was common in North Carolina and throughout British North America. Legal procedures for [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Industrial Commission
by Maupin, Armistead Jones. Industrial Commission by Armistead Jones Maupin, 2006 The Industrial Commission is the state agency that administers the [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Instructions to Royal Governors
by Norris, David A. Every governor of Great Britain's royal colonies received an official commission and a set of instructions from the Board of Trade that were to guide his actions while in office. The instructions [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Iredell, James, Sr.
by Higginbotham, Don. James Iredell Senior, state judge, state attorney general, and United States Supreme Court justice, was born at Lewes, Sussex, England, the oldest of five sons of Margaret McCulloh and Francis [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Johnston's Riot Act
by McGee, Barry. Johnston's Riot Act of 1771 was an attempt by members of the royal colonial government to control and punish the Regulators, North Carolinians from the frontier counties who had revolted against [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Judiciary, Federal
by Fish, Peter Graham, Brinkley, Martin H. The federal judicial system was created with the opening words of Article III of the U.S. Constitution: "The Judicial Power of the United States shall be vested." The framers of the Constitution [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Judiciary, State
by Williams, Wiley J. When North Carolina became a state in 1776, the colonial structure of the court system was retained nearly intact. The Court of Pleas and Quarter Sessions, the county court that existed from about [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Justices of the Peace
by Linn, Jo White. Justices of the Peace, or judges of record, were appointed in early colonial North Carolina for certain county or borough districts to preserve the peace and ensure that the law and legal processes [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
King's Bounty
by Towles, Louis P. The King's Bounty (1757) was a grant of £200,000 that England gave its American colonies in repayment for their military assistance during the French and Indian War (1754-63). The portion of this [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Land Grants Part 2: Important Land Speculators of the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries
by Towles, Louis P., Southern, David. Among the first land speculators to receive grants were Richard Averitt, Maj. George Pollock, William Little, John Lovick, and Edward Moseley. Averitt was in fact Sir Richard Everard, the last [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Land Grants Part 3: Land Grants and the Recruitment of Settlers to the Carolina Colony
by Towles, Louis P., Southern, David. Land grants were also given to individuals on a much more modest scale. A recipient, in exchange for a land grant, was obliged to pay each year an established rent (called a quitrent), either [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Law Schools
by Mitchell, Memory F. In the eighteenth and early nineteenth century, legal education in North Carolina was a haphazard undertaking. A young law student studied on his own or under the tutelage of a licensed lawyer, [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
London, Henry Armand
by Smith, Claiborne T., Jr. London, Henry Armand by Claiborne T. Smith, Jr., 1991 1 Mar. 1846–20 Jan. 1918 Henry Armand London, journalist and lawyer, was born in [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Macon's Bill Number Two
by Pruden, Caroline. Following the War of 1812 Macon's Bill Number Two was one of a succession of economic retaliatory measures enacted in the years preceding the War of 1812. Determined to avoid war with Great Britain [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Marriage
by Linn, Jo White. Marriage in North Carolina, until 1868, could be either by license or by banns (public announcement) in the county where the bride lived. It is estimated that in North Carolina two-thirds of all [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Mississippi Navigation Crisis
by Merritt, Eli F. The Mississippi Navigation Crisis of 1786-88 was the first serious North-South political quarrel in U.S. history. Some of the most outspoken and vociferous opponents to Secretary of State John Jay's [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Moonshine
by Simpson, Bland, Yancey, Noel, Hewitt, Kimberly. Moonshine by Bland Simpson, 2006 Additional research provided by Kimberly Hewitt and Noel Yancey. See also: Alcoholic Beverage Control Commission; Brown Bagging; Beer and Breweries; Beer; [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Moore, Bartholomew Figures
by Mitchell, Memory F. Bartholomew Figures Moore, attorney, was born in Halifax County, the sixth child of James Moore of Virginia and his second wife, Sally Lewis Lowe of Edgecombe County. His father, the son of James and [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Moore, Clifton Leonard
by Trawick, Gary E. Moore, Clifton Leonard by Gary E. Trawick, 1991 28 Sept. 1900–12 July 1966 Clifton Leonard Moore, judge, was born in Pender County, the second of six children of William David and Ida Murray [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Navigation Acts (1651, 1660)
by Smith, Carmen Miner. The Navigation Acts (1651, 1660) were acts of Parliament intended to promote the self-sufficiency of the British Empire by restricting colonial trade to England and decreasing dependence on foreign [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Nonimportation Agreement (1768)
by Towles, Louis P. Nonimportation Agreement (1768) by Louis P. Towles, 2006 See also: Regulator Movement The Nonimportation Agreement (1768), which required the American colonies to purchase English [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
North Carolina Bar Association
by Mitchell, Memory F. The North Carolina Bar Association dates to 1899, although a short-lived organization of lawyers had been formed in 1885. The first group had only two meetings and was formally disbanded after the [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
North Carolina Conference for Social Service
by Finlator, W. W. The North Carolina Conference for Social Service was formed in 1912, when a body of socially conscious men and women recognized that little attention was being paid to many disadvantaged North [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
North Carolina State Bar
by Maupin, Armistead Jones. The North Carolina State Bar was created by the General Assembly in 1933 as an agency of the state. Its purpose is to render more effective service and improve administrative justice, particularly in [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Nullification Crisis
by Cockrell, David L. The Nullification Crisis of 1832 found North Carolina generally opposed to the position of other southern states, particularly South Carolina, regarding a federal tariff on agricultural goods. The [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Ogden v. Witherspoon (Blackledge)
by Fish, Peter Graham. Ogden v. Witherspoon (Blackledge) was heard before circuit justice John Marshall and resident district judge Henry Potter in 1802. The judges sharply disagreed about the meaning of several [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Outlawry
by Kapp, M. Keith. Outlawry, involving declarations issued by the courts against fleeing felons, came to North Carolina as part of English common law. During the Regulator crisis in 1764, a statute replacing common-law [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Oyster War
by Stevenson, George. In 1891 North Carolina declared "war" on the oyster fishermen who had drifted down from the north. By the 1880s overfishing had dangerously depleted the seemingly inexhaustible oyster beds of [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Palatine Court
by Towles, Louis P. "Palatine" was the title applied to the senior ("eldest") member of the Lords Proprietors (and his successors), to whom the colony of Carolina was granted by the English Crown in 1663. The Palatine [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Pearsall Plan
by Thuesen, Sarah C. On 17 May 1954, the U.S. Supreme Court declared in Brown v. Board of Education that racial segregation in public schools was unconstitutional. In the years that followed, the southern states [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Peerage
by Cain, Robert J., Norris, David A. The Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina of 1669 outlined an idealistic version of feudalism as the intended form of government for the colony under Proprietary rule. The Lords Proprietors had the [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Plantation Duty Act of 1673
by Smith, Carmen Miner. The Plantation Duty Act of 1673 was an act of Parliament intended to eliminate the smuggling of articles enumerated in the Navigation Act of 1660 and to induce the colonists to export those articles [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Plessy v. Ferguson
by Roundtree, Lynn. Plessy v. Ferguson by Lynn Roundtree, 2006 In 1896 the U.S. Supreme Court upheld the so-called separate-but-equal segregation of whites and blacks in public facilities in its decision on [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Poole Bills
by Mills, Jerry Leath. The Poole Bills, also called "Poole Monkey Bills," were a series of attempts in the 1920s by General Assembly member D. Scott Poole to outlaw the teaching of evolution in state-supported schools. [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Powell Bill
by Johnston, W. Lee, Jr. The Powell Bill was the successful product of a 15-year fight by the League of Municipalities to have the state of North Carolina fund the building and maintenance of major city streets. Senate Bill [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Primogeniture
by Spindel, Donna J. Primogeniture was the name for the English law that made the oldest son heir to a family estate if the head of the family died without a will or without providing for some disposition of his or her [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Proclamation of 1763
by Spindel, Donna J. The Proclamation of 1763 is intimately tied to the history of English-Native American relations during the colonial era. The purpose of the proclamation was to stop white settlers or traders from [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Profanity
by Kenniff, Sean. The existence of profanity in North Carolina, as in other states, can be attributed to the English-speaking settlers who established themselves in the New World. Their newly attained political [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Prohibition
by Johnson, K. Todd. Prohibition by K. Todd Johnson, 2006 See also: Alcoholic Beverage Control Commission; Anti-Saloon League; Blind Tiger, Temperance Movement; Turlington [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Prostitution
by Towles, Louis P. Prostitution was not a crime in seventeenth-century North Carolina since there were no laws pertaining to it. Fornication, or illicit sexual activity, was viewed as a matter of morals rather than a [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Provincial Congresses
by Butler, Lindley S. From the summer of 1774 through 1776, five extralegal representative assemblies patterned after the colonial Lower House led the transition from royal to state government in North Carolina. In the [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Pupil Assignment Act
by Campbell, Karl E. The Pupil Assignment Act was North Carolina's first and most effective legislative response to the U.S. Supreme Court's ruling in Brown v. Board of Education. On 17 May 1954 the Court declared that [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Register of Deeds
by Smith, William W. The office of register of deeds in North Carolina can be traced to the Concessions and Agreement of 1665 issued by the Lords Proprietors, which provided for the appointment of "chiefe Registers or [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Richmond Hill Law School
by Angley, Wilson. Richmond Hill Law School by Wilson Angley, 2006 Richmond Hill Law School in [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Right-to-Work Law
by Williams, Wiley J. North Carolina's right-to-work law, ratified on 18 Mar. 1947, greatly limits the power of labor unions in the state. The statute makes illegal the closed shop, by which union membership is a [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Ruffin, Thomas
by Robinson, Blackwell P. Ruffin, Thomas by Blackwell P. Robinson, 1994 17 Nov. 1787–15 Jan. 1870 Thomas Ruffin, chief justice of the North Carolina Supreme Court, statesman, and agriculturist, was born at Newington, [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Scales Trial
by Cain, Robert J. Junius Irving Scales, from a prominent Greensboro family that included his great-uncle, Governor Alfred Moore Scales, in 1939 joined the Communist Party of the United States while enrolled at the [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Shoffner Act
by Trelease, Allen W. The Shoffner Act, introduced by state senator T. M. Shoffner of Alamance County and passed in 1870, empowered the governor to suspend habeas corpus and use militia to restore order in counties where [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Short Ballot
by Williams, Wiley J. The short ballot movement set forth the principles that only those offices important enough to attract and deserve public examination should be elective, and that only a few offices should be filled [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Simkins v. Cone
by Thomas, Karen Kruse. In 1962 dentist George Simkins, physician Alvin Blount, and other African American physicians and their patients sued Moses H. Cone Memorial Hospital and Wesley Long Community Hospital in Greensboro, [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Smathers, George Henry
by Shaber, Sarah R. George Henry Smathers, Asheville attorney and expert on land titles in western North Carolina, was born in Turnpike, Buncombe County, one of thirteen children of John Charles and Lucilla E. Smathers. [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
South Dakota v. North Carolina
by Hunt, James L. The author of the lawsuit was Daniel L. Russell Jr., Republican governor of the state from 1897 to 1901. Russell conceived the plan in 1900, while his party was collapsing from the onslaught of white [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Speaker Ban Law
by Johnston, W. Lee, Jr. Speaker Ban Law by W. Lee Johnston Jr., 2006 The Speaker Ban Law was adopted on 25 June 1963, the last day of the legislative session, after just over one hour of [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Speaker of the Assembly
by Towles, Louis P. The Speaker of the Assembly, called the manager of the House of Burgesses in colonial North Carolina, was the most important person in the legislature and possibly the key individual in the [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
State Bureau of Investigation
by Williams, Wiley J. The State Bureau of Investigation (SBI). Created in 1925 by the General Assembly, the State Bureau of Identification was attached to the prison department, with the deputy warden designated as [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
State Planning Board
by Huggins, Kay Haire. The State Planning Board was established in North Carolina during the Great Depression as part of President Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal. In 1933 Secretary of the Interior Harold Ickes created [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
State v. John Mann
by Brinkley, Martin H. State v. John Mann by Martin H. Brinkley, 2006 State v. John Mann, an 1829 North Carolina Supreme Court decision, is probably the most notorious judicial opinion on the relationship between [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
State v. Manuel
by Stoesen, Alexander R. State v. Manuel by Alexander R. Stoesen, 2006 State v. Manuel, argued before the North Carolina Supreme Court in 1838, was the first case to decide that a free black person was a citizen of [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
State v. Negro Will
by Brinkley, Martin H. State v. Negro Will by Martin H. Brinkley, 2006 See also: State v. John Mann. State v. Negro Will, a celebrated 1834 North Carolina Supreme Court decision standing for the general [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Stay Law
by Norris, David A. The Stay Law is a piece of legislation that gives debtors extra time to pay their creditors before their property is seized for payment. Several states passed such a law, beginning in the years of [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Sugar Act
by Smith, Carmen Miner. The Sugar Act, officially titled the American Revenue Act, was passed by British Parliament in April 1764 in cooperation with Prime Minister George Grenville. The act was intended to reduce the large [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Sunset Law
by Powell, William S. The Sunset Law, an act of the 1977 General Assembly sponsored by state senator Willis P. Whichard, provided for the periodic review of specific licensing and regulatory agencies of state government [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Supreme Court of North Carolina
by Brinkley, Martin H. The Supreme Court of North Carolina is a seven-member tribunal occupying the apex of the state's General Court of Justice and possessing appellate jurisdiction to review the decisions of lower courts [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education
by Brabham, Robin. Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education by Robin Brabham, 2006 See also: Pupil Assignment Act. Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education, argued before the U.S. Supreme [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Swann's Revisal
by Powell, William S. Swann's Revisal by William S. Powell, 2006 Swann's Revisal is the familiar name of the first book published in the colony of North Carolina. The book-whose partial official title was A [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Teaching of Evolution
by Toumey, Christopher P. Teaching of Evolution by Christopher P. Toumey, 2006 See also: Poole Bills. Conflicts involving the teaching of the theory of [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Temperance Movement
by Williams, Wiley J. The temperance movement in North Carolina, which had as its goal the elimination or severe restriction of alcoholic beverage consumption in the state, is often equated with the formation of [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Thirteenth Amendment
by Alexander, Roberta Sue. Thirteenth Amendment by Roberta Sue Alexander, 2006 The Thirteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, sent to the states for ratification in February 1865 with the unanimous support of [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Thomas, Micajah, Jr.
by Johnston, Hugh Buckner. Micajah Thomas, Jr., planter, taverner, clerk of court, justice, and legislator, was the son of Captain Micajah (13 Feb. 1726–14 Nov. 1769) and Mourning Dixon Thomas. His father was a native of [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Time Zones
by Powell, William S. Time zones were determined locally until the coming of railroads. Schedules then became essential, particularly for trains traveling in an east-west direction. In the decade before 1880, the need for [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Towns and Cities
by Stick, David, Vocci, Robert Blair. Towns and Cities by David Stick, 2006 Additional research provided by Robert Blair Vocci. See also: Counties; Counties (from the Enclyclopedia of North Carolina) Formally [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Turlington Act
by Cashion, Jerry C. Turlington Act by Jerry C. Cashion, 2006 See Also: Prohibition; Temperance Movement; Anti-Saloon League; Alcoholic Beverage Control Commission In 1923 Zebulon Vance Turlington (1877-1969) of [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Umstead Act
by Baxley, Laura Young. The Umstead Act, named for U.S. congressman and North Carolina governor William B. Umstead and passed originally in 1939, was enacted by the North Carolina legislature to prevent state-owned agencies [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
United States v. American Tobacco Company
by Hunt, James L. United States v. American Tobacco Company was a 1911 U.S. Supreme Court case in which the Court found that a large number of persons and corporations-including North Carolinians James Buchanan Duke, [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Utilities, Regulation of
by Hunt, James L. The regulation of utilities in North Carolina has always reflected the tension between the goals of private business and the needs of the public. It has been shaped by massive technological change, [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Warren, Lindsay Carter
by Johnston, W. Lee. Lindsay Carter Warren, lawyer, legislator, congressman, and comptroller general of the United States, was born in Washington, Beaufort County, the son of Charles Frederic and Elizabeth Mutter Blount [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Weights and Measures
by Norris, David A. Among the responsibilities of the Church of England parishes in early North Carolina was the purchase and maintenance of a set of sealed weights and measures as the standards for each county. This [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Wilmington Ten
by Stinson, Craig M. On 6 Feb. 1971, after weeks of racial tension over integration of the public school system in Wilmington, a white-owned grocery store in a black neighborhood was firebombed. A year later Ben Chavis, [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Young, John Smith
by Fant, H. B. John Smith Young, Louisiana lawyer, Confederate officer, jurist, legislator, congressman, and sheriff, had ancestral connections with Granville County but was born on his father's twenty-slave [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
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