Black and African American People

Black and African American People
James Timothy "Tim" Brymn
by . Among the musicians from Kinston, North Carolina who have created legacies in the world of music, one of the earliest to be recognized was the jazz composer and band leader J. Tim Brymn. Born in [...] (from North Carolina Arts Council.)
James William Alston
by Peek, Matthew M. James William Alston 18 Jan. 1876-14 Dec. 1940 by Matthew M. Peek, State Archives of North Carolina, 2015 James William Alston served in the U.S. Army during both the Spanish-American [...] (from NC Office of Archives and History.)
JoAnne Peerman on junior high sit-ins
by . An excerpt from an oral history interview conducted in 1991 between Bob Gilgor and Joanne Peerman, an African American women who grew up in Chapel Hill and experienced integration during the 1960s [...] (from University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Libraries.)
1830-1850: Antebellum NC Begins
by Watson, Harry L. 1830-1850: Antebellum NC Begins Originally published as "Winning the Fight for Progress-- North Carolina's Antebellum years begin: 1830-1850" by Harry L. Watson Reprinted with permission from [...] (from Tar Heel Junior Historian, NC Museum of History.)
1920s: A Decade of Change
by Silverstein, Barrett A. Have you ever heard the phrase “the roaring twenties?” Also known as the Jazz Age, the decade of the 1920s featured economic prosperity and carefree living for many. The decade began with a roar and [...] (from Tar Heel Junior Historian, NC Museum of History.)
4-H and Home Demonstration among African Americans: North Carolina's African American Extension Service
by Manor, Amy, Pronovost, Emily. Originally published as "4-H and Home Demonstration among African Americans", Green 'N' Growing, The History of Home Demonstration and 4-H Youth Development in North Carolina, NCSU Libraries. [...] (from NCSU Libraries.)
9th Wonder
by Eckard, Max. Patrick Denard Douthit, better known by his stage name, 9th Wonder (or, since 2010, 9thmatic), is a record producer and record executive from Winston Salem, NC. He is also a Grammy award-winning [...] (from NCpedia.)
A Black Man Reads of the Emancipation Proclamation
by . The man is reading a newspaper with headline, "Presidential Proclamation, Slavery," which refers to the Jan. 1863 Emancipation Proclamation. Stephens has created several other illustrations that [...] (from University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Libraries.)
A black sailor in the American Revolution
by . A black sailor in the American Revolution This African American sailor, whose portrait here was painted during the American Revolution, wears the uniform of a sailor in the navy rather than of one [...] (from University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Libraries.)
Abraham Galloway
by Franck, Julie. Galloway, Abraham 8 Feb.1837 - 1 Sept.1870 by Julie Franck, North Carolina State University, 2013 Abraham Galloway, former slave, Union spy and military recruiter, militant abolitionist, [...] (from Government & Heritage Library, State Library of North Carolina.)
Ad Valorem Taxation of Slaves
by Faulkner, Ronnie W. Ad valorem taxation of slaves was a major political issue in antebellum North Carolina and continued during the Civil War as a manifestation of the divisions between the planter class and the [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Adams-Ender, Clara
by Pollitt, Phoebe Ann. Originally published in "North Carolina Nursing History." Republished with permission. For personal educational use and not for further distribution. Please submit permission requests for other uses [...] (from Appalachian State University.)
Address to the Colored People of North Carolina
by . Address to the Colored People of North Carolina A complete transcription is [...] (from Government & Heritage Library, State Library of North Carolina.)
Adkin High School Walkout (1951) 
by . Adkin High School Walkout 1951  Kinston, NC by the North Carolina Arts Council.  Originally published in African American Music Trails of Eastern North Carolina, copyright [...] (from North Carolina Arts Council.)
African American History, Business and Culture: North Carolina 1870-1920
by Anderson, Jean B. By Elizabeth A. Fenn, Peter H. Wood, Harry L. Watson, Thomas H. Clayton, Sydney Nathans, Thomas C. Parramore, and Jean B. Anderson; Maps by Mark Anderson Moore. Edited by Joe A. Mobley. [...] (from The Way We Lived in North Carolina, NC Office of Archives and History and UNC Press.)
African American Marines during World War II
by . Original title: "Negro Marines prepare for action. Breaking a tradition of 167 years, the U.S. Marine Corps started enlisting Negroes on June 1, 1942. The first class of 1,200 Negro volunteers began [...] (from Government & Heritage Library, State Library of North Carolina.)
African American Marines, World War II
by . African American Marines, World War II Original title: "Negro Marines prepare for action. Breaking a tradition of 167 years, the U.S. Marine Corps started enlisting Negroes on June 1, 1942. The [...] (from Government & Heritage Library, State Library of North Carolina.)
African American Music Trails of Eastern North Carolina: Kinston Area
by . African American Music Trails of Eastern North Carolina: Kinston Area by the North Carolina Arts Council. Originally published in African American Music Trails of Eastern North Carolina, [...] (from North Carolina Arts Council.)
African American Newspapers in North Carolina
by Gregory, Lisa. African American Newspapers in North Carolina By Lisa Gregory, North Carolina Digital Heritage Center, 2018 Since the publication of Freedom’s Journal in 1827 in New York City, African [...] (from North Carolina Digital Heritage Center.)
African Americans & the Revolution
by Crow, Jeffrey J. The story of how the original thirteen American colonies broke away from Great Britain and formed the United States is well known. Less well known is how African-Americans felt and what they did [...] (from Tar Heel Junior Historian, NC Museum of History.)
African Americans - Part 1: Introduction
by Alexander, Roberta Sue, Barfield, Rodney D., Nash, Steven E., Williams, Wiley J., Wescott, Joseph W., II. African Americans by Roberta Sue Alexander, Rodney D. Barfield, and Steven E. Nash, 2006 Additional research provided by Joseph W. Wescott II and Wiley J. [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
African Americans - Part 2: Life under slavery
by Alexander, Roberta Sue, Barfield, Rodney D., Nash, Steven E. Part i: Introduction; Part ii: Life under slavery and the achievements of free blacks; Part iii: Emancipation and the Freedmen's Fight for Civil Rights; Part iv: Segregation and the [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
African Americans - Part 3: Emancipation
by Alexander, Roberta Sue, Barfield, Rodney D., Nash, Steven E. Part i: Introduction; Part ii: Life under slavery and the achievements of free blacks; Part iii: Emancipation and the Freedmen's Fight for Civil Rights; Part iv: Segregation and [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
African Americans - Part 4: Segregation
by Alexander, Roberta Sue, Barfield, Rodney D., Nash, Steven E. Part i: Introduction; Part ii: Life under slavery and the achievements of free blacks; Part iii: Emancipation and the Freedmen's Fight for Civil Rights; Part iv: Segregation and [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
African Americans - Part 5: Emerging roles
by Alexander, Roberta Sue, Barfield, Rodney D., Nash, Steven E. Part i: Introduction; Part ii: Life under slavery and the achievements of free blacks; Part iii: Emancipation and the Freedmen's Fight for Civil Rights; Part iv: Segregation and [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
African Americans - Part 6: References
by Alexander, Roberta Sue, Barfield, Rodney D., Nash, Steven E. Part i: Introduction; Part ii: Life under slavery and the achievements of free blacks; Part iii: Emancipation and the Freedmen's Fight for Civil Rights; Part iv: Segregation and [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
African Americans Defend Washington
by Coffey, Michael W. During the siege of Washington in April 1863, Union troops armed African Americans to participate in the defense of the town. The incident is an early example in North Carolina of the shift [...] (from Research Branch, NC Office of Archives and History.)
African Americans in Union-Occupied Eastern North Carolina during the Civil War
by Poteat, RaeLana. African Americans in Union-Occupied Eastern North Carolina during the Civil War By RaeLana Poteat Reprinted with permission from the Tar Heel Junior Historian 40:1 (fall [...] (from Tar Heel Junior Historian, NC Museum of History.)
African and African American Storytelling
by Wilson, Madafo Lloyd. African and African American Storytelling By Madafo Lloyd Wilson Reprinted with permission from the Tar Heel Junior Historian, Spring 2002. Tar Heel Junior Historian Association, NC Museum of [...] (from Tar Heel Junior Historian, NC Museum of History.)
African Methodist Episcopal (AME) Church
by Criner, Allyson C. African Methodist Episcopal (AME) Church is a Christian denomination dating back to 1787, when a number of black worshippers withdrew from the interracial St. George's Methodist Episcopal Church in [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church
by Williams, Wiley J. African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church by Wiley J. Williams, 2006 See also: African Americans; Simon Green Atkins; Andrew J. Cartwright; John Campbell Dancy, Jr.; James Walker Hood; [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Agricultural Economy of Antebellum Life
by LeCount, Charles. One hundred fifty years ago, nearly all North Carolinians made their living by farming. And even the majority of those who did not actually farm were still tied to the state’s agricultural economy: [...] (from Tar Heel Junior Historian, NC Museum of History.)
American Missionary Association
by Williams, Wiley J. The American Missionary Association (AMA) was a Christian educational organization founded on 3 Sept. 1846 in Albany, N.Y., through the antislavery coalition of the Union Missionary Society, the [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Angelou, Maya
by Horton, Emily S. Maya Angelou was best known as a poet and the best-selling author of I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings (1970). Angelou was also a singer, dancer, Grammy-winning composer, director, and actress. She was [...] (from NCpedia.)
Anti-Slavery Movement in North Carolina
by Lasley, Rebecca Graham. Anti-Slavery Movement in North Carolina by Rebecca Graham Lasley Reprinted with permission from the Tar Heel Junior Historian. Fall 2008; Revised by NC Government & Heritage Library, May [...] (from Tar Heel Junior Historian, NC Museum of History.)
At the bus station
by . A black man stands at a bus station beneath a sign reading "Colored Waiting Room." The Supreme Court case Plessy v. Ferguson in 1896 established that segregation in public spaces, such as bus stops, [...] (from Government & Heritage Library, State Library of North Carolina.)
Atkins, Simon Green
by Gainor, Samuel M. Atkins received his early schooling in Haywood. He was an astute student and progressed to teaching in the town school before he enrolled in St. Augustine's Normal Collegiate Institute, now St. [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Atwater, Ann George
by Carrier, Sarah. Ann George Atwater was a lifelong grassroots civil rights activist in Durham, North Carolina. She was born in Hallsboro, Columbus County on July 1, 1935. As a child, she attended the Farmers’ Union [...] (from University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Libraries.)
Bailey, Neil Alexander
by Stewart, James. Neil Alexander Bailey* was the first African-American agricultural extension agent in the state of North Carolina. He was born in Harnett County, North Carolina, the son of Edward and Phillis McLean [...] (from NCSU Libraries.)
Baker, Ella
by Townes, Mitzi. Ella Baker was born on December 13, 1903 in Norfolk , Va. When Ella was eight years old her family moved to Littleton, North Carolina. In 1918, Ella Baker entered Shaw University, a Baptist boarding [...] (from NCpedia.)
Baker, Ella Josephine
by Agan, Kelly, Davis, Sarajanee. Baker, Ella Josephine Giving light so people can find the way By Sarajanee Davis, N.C. Government & Heritage Library, 2019; Kelly Agan, N.C. Government & Heritage Library, [...] (from NCpedia K-8 Collection.)
Barber-Scotia College
by Wadelington, Charles W. Barber-Scotia College by Charles W. Wadelington, 2006 See also: Historically Black Colleges and Universities; North Carolina Women's Colleges; Historically Black Colleges and [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Barnes, Ernest Eugene
by Agan, Kelly. Ernest Eugene Barnes – known as Ernie -- was born on July 15, 1938 to parents Ernest E. Barnes, Sr. and Fannie Mae Geer near the Hayti neighborhood in Durham.  His father, originally from [...] (from Government & Heritage Library, State Library of North Carolina.)
Barrino, Fantasia
by Horton, Emily S. Fantasia Barrino June 30, 1984- by Emily Horton NC Government & Heritage Library, 2016. Related Entries: Clay Aiken; Kellie Pickler; Chris Daughtry; Bucky Covington; Scotty McCreery; [...] (from NCpedia.)
Bassett Affair
by Johnson, Lloyd. Bassett Affair by Lloyd Johnson, 2006 See also: Bassett, John Spencer, Trinity College The Bassett Affair significantly enhanced the ideal of academic freedom in North Carolina and the [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Bearden, Romare
by Wegner, Ansley Herring. Bearden, Romare by Ansley Wegner, Research Branch, NC Office of Archives and History, 2013   September 2, 1911 - March 12, 1988 Romare Bearden was born in Charlotte in 1911. [...] (from Research Branch, NC Office of Archives and History.)
Best, Andrew Arthur
by Hill, Steven. Best, Andrew Arthur (November 26, 1916-December 7, 2005) by Steven A. Hill, 2019 Published with permission. For personal educational use and not for further distribution.  Andrew [...] (from Government & Heritage Library, State Library of North Carolina.)
Bethea-Shields, Karen: In Joan Little's Cell
by Cecelski, David S. On the day she passed her bar exam in 1974, Karen Galloway, now Karen Bethea-Shields, was named co-counsel in the first-degree murder trial of Joan Little. It became one of the most controversial [...] (from Listening to History, News and Observer.)
Black and African American North Carolina Award Winners
by . The North Carolina Award, the state's highest civilian honor, was established by the General Assembly in 1961 and the first award-winners were honored in 1964. Artist Romare Bearden was the first [...] (from NC Office of Archives and History.)
Black and Tan Constitution
by Harris, William C. The Black and Tan Constitution was a derisive label used by many white Democrats to characterize the North Carolina Constitution of 1868. The term referred to the individuals who were believed to [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Black Codes
by Harris, William C. Black Codes by William C. Harris, 2006 See Also: Slave Codes Soon after the Civil War, southern states governed by Presidential Reconstruction (1865-67) adopted racially discriminatory laws, [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Black Freemasonry
by Kenzer, Robert C. Black Freemasonry, like its white counterpart, promotes fellowship within a membership that engages in a wide variety of social and benevolent activities. Although black freemasonry dates back to the [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Black Panther Party
by Schutz, J. Christopher. The Black Panther Party was founded in Oakland, Calif., in October 1966. The controversial organization espoused black pride and black control of neighborhood institutions, preached self-defense [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Black Wall Street
by Agan, Kelly, Davis, Sarajanee. Black Wall Street Business is Booming By Sarajanee Davis and Kelly Agan, N.C. Government & Heritage Library, [...] (from NCpedia K-8 Collection.)
Black Wall Street, Durham, North Carolina
by Hill, Michael. In the early twentieth century, Parrish Street in Durham constituted what today would be called an enterprise zone, propelled by the Bull City’s African American businessmen. Nationally recognized, [...] (from Research Branch, NC Office of Archives and History.)
Blue Lodges
by McGee, Barry. Blue Lodges were secret groups organized to defend slavery and the "southern way of life" in response to the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854. The new law, sponsored by Senator Stephen A. Douglas of [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Blues
by Holden, Charles J., Baker, Bruce E. North Carolina boasts significant contributions to the musical tradition known as the blues. Throughout its formative decades, the blues was the music of solo artists rather than groups, with the [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Bond, Hannah
by Rodriguez, Crystal. Hannah Bond was an enslaved African American woman who escaped bondage and wrote the earliest known novel written by an African American woman. The unpublished novel was not rediscovered until it was [...] (from NCpedia.)
Broadfoot, Carrie Early
by Pollitt, Phoebe Ann. Originally published in "North Carolina Nursing History." Republished with permission. For personal educational use and not for further distribution. Please submit permission requests for other uses [...] (from Appalachian State University.)
Brown, Calvin Scott
by Stephenson, E. Frank, Jr. Calvin Scott Brown, educator, editor, minister, and advisor, was born in Salisbury of black and Scotch-Irish ancestry. His father was Henry Brown, a farmer, and his mother was Flora Brown. Brought up [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Brown, Charlotte Hawkins
by Burns, Augustus M., III. Charlotte Hawkins Brown, a pioneer in education and race relations, was born on a farm near Henderson, the granddaughter of a slave. Her mother, Caroline Frances Hawkins, moved to Cambridge, Mass., [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Brown, Charlotte Hawkins
by Anonymous. CHARLOTTE HAWKINS BROWN See also: Brown, Charlotte Hawkins from the Dictionary of North Carolina Biography; Charlotte Hawkins Brown for K-8 Students This essay is adapted from information at [...] (from Charlotte Hawkins Brown Museum.)
Brown, Hattie: A Freedom Story
by Cecelski, David S. I spoke with Hattie Brown as we walked through the old graveyard in Goshen, a black farming community in Jones County. She had a story for each of the dead. Her most striking memories were her [...] (from Listening to History, News and Observer.)
Browne, Rose Butler
by Hill, Michael. The name of Rose Butler Browne is venerated on the campus of North Carolina Central University (NCCU). Born in Boston in 1897, Browne was an influential educator, civil rights activist, and community [...] (from Research Branch, NC Office of Archives and History.)
Buck Dancing
by Baker, Bruce E. Buck dancing is a folk dance that originated among African Americans during the era of slavery. It was largely associated with the North Carolina Piedmont and, later, with the blues. The original [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Burial Customs
by DiNome, William G. Burial Customs by William G. DiNome, 2006 See also: Funerals; Town Creek Indian Mound. The nature of the specific burial customs that may have existed among the people inhabiting the [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Burke, Selma Hortense
by Agan, Kelly. Burke, Selma Hortense By Adapted by Kelly Agan, Government & Heritage Library, 2019, from the Blog, "This Day in North Carolina History" (December 31, 2016) 31 Dec. 1900 - [...] (from North Carolina Department of Natural and Cultural Resources.)
Camp Johnson (Montford Point)
by Hill, Michael. Camp Johnson (Montford Point) by Michael Hill, Research Branch, NC Office of Archives and History, 2000 www.ncmarkers.com/   See also: Camp [...] (from Research Branch, NC Office of Archives and History.)
Cannady, Mary: At Dr. King's House
by Cecelski, David S. Mary Cannady was 50 years old in 1965 when three civil rights activists were killed in Alabama. The deaths of Jimmie Lee Jackson, the Rev. James Reeb and Viola Liuzzo shocked the nation, including [...] (from Listening to History, News and Observer.)
Carter, Dorcas E.: The Great Fire Of '22
by Cecelski, David S. The great fire of 1922 burned 40 city blocks in New Bern and left thousands of people homeless. It was the most destructive fire in the state's history. Dorcas E. Carter, one of the few people who [...] (from Listening to History, News and Observer.)
Cartwright, Andrew
by Cross, Jerry L. Andrew J. Cartwright, minister and agent of the American Colonization Society, was born in Elizabeth City under circumstances as yet unknown: some contend that he was the son of slave parents and [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Chance, William Claudius, Sr.
by Caldwell, John T. William Claudius Chance, Sr., educator and humanitarian, was born in Parmele. His parents were W. V. and Alice Chance; his grandparents, who reared him, were Bryant and Penethia Chance; all were [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Charlotte Hawkins Brown Museum
by Stoesen, Alexander R. Charlotte Hawkins Brown Museum by Alexander R. Stoesen, 2006 See also: Brown, Charlotte Hawkins; Palmer Memorial Institute; Museums The Charlotte Hawkins Brown Museum is located in [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Charlotte Hawkins Brown: singing her own song
by Agan, Kelly, Ashley, Stephen. Brown, Charlotte Hawkins Charlotte Hawkins Brown: singing her own song By Stephen Ashley and Kelly Agan, N.C. Government & Heritage Library, 2020 From the NCpedia K-8 [...] (from NCpedia K-8 Collection.)
Chavis, John
by Parramore, Barbara M. John Chavis, preacher and teacher, was probably the "indentured servant named John Chavis" mentioned in the inventory of the estate of Halifax attorney James Milner in 1773, though little is [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Cheatham, Henry Plummer
by Gatewood, Willard B., Jr. Henry Plummer Cheatham, politician, educator, and racial spokesman, was born to a house slave on a plantation near Henderson. Treated with favor by his white father, a prominent planter, Cheatham [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Cherry, David King
by Stewart, James. Captain D. K. Cherry was a noted African American college professor at North Carolina Agricultural & Technical State University, a distinguished World War I veteran, and the president of the [...] (from NC Office of Archives and History.)
Chesnutt, Charles Waddell
by Andrews, William L. Chesnutt, Charles Waddell by William L. Andrews, 1979 20 June 1858–15 Nov. 1932 Charles Waddell Chesnutt, writer, was born in Cleveland, Ohio, the first child of Andrew Jackson Chesnutt and [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Civil Rights in North Carolina
by Brown, Flora Bryant. African American Civil Rights in North Carolina by Dr. Flora Bryant Brown Reprinted with permission from the Tar Heel Junior Historian. Fall 2004. Tar Heel Junior Historian Association, NC [...] (from Tar Heel Junior Historian, NC Museum of History.)
Civil Rights Movement- Part 2: Roots of Civil Rights Activism in North Carolina
by Price, William S., Jr., Criner, Allyson C. Part 1: Introduction; Part 2: Roots of Civil Rights Activism in North Carolina; Part 3: Brown v. Board of Education and White Resistance to School Desegregation; Part 4: Integration Efforts in the [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Civil Rights Sit-Ins
by McDermott, Nancie. A hot dog got it all started—the hot dog that Joe McNeil did not get to eat one day in January 1960. Nineteen years old and a graduate of Williston High School in Wilmington, McNeil was a student at [...] (from Tar Heel Junior Historian, NC Museum of History.)
Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)
by Cole, Olen. Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) "Work and Opportunity: African Americans in the CCC" by Dr. Olen Cole Jr. Reprinted with permission from the Tar Heel Junior Historian. Spring 2010. Tar Heel [...] (from Tar Heel Junior Historian, NC Museum of History.)
Clansman, The
by Faulkner, Ronnie W. The Clansman, a novel recounting the Civil War, Reconstruction, and the so-called redemption of the South by the Ku Klux Klan, was written by North Carolina author Thomas Dixon Jr. (1864-1946) and [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Clinton, George
by Franke, Matthew. George Clinton (nicknamed "the Prime Minister of Funk" and "Dr. Funkenstein") is a singer, songwriter, and producer best known as the leader of the popular funk bands Parliament and Funkadelic [...] (from NCpedia.)
Coleman Manufacturing Company
by Baker, Bruce E. Coleman Manufacturing Company by Bruce E. Baker, 2006 The Coleman Manufacturing Company in Concord was the first black-owned cotton mill in the United States. Warren C. [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Coleman, Warren Clay
by Krieger, Marvin. Warren Clay Coleman, manufacturer, was the illegitimate son of Rufus Clay Barringer, afterward a Confederate general, and Roxanna Coleman, a slave owned by Daniel Coleman, Sr., of Concord. Prior to [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Colonization Societies
by Mitchell, Memory F., Canipe, Jeremy T. Colonization Societies were organized in the early nineteenth century to promote the relocation of African Americans, particularly free blacks, to places such as Haiti, Liberia, the American Midwest, [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Colored Farmers' Alliance
by Losse, Helen. The Colored Farmers' Alliance was created when an agricultural depression hit the South around 1870 and farmers began to organize themselves into radical political groups. It paralleled the white [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Colored Merchants Association
by Tolbert, Lisa. For two months in the spring of 1929, a group of African American grocery store owners in Winston-Salem organized public lectures, meetings, exhibits, and food tastings that attracted large audiences [...] (from Tar Heel Junior Historian, NC Museum of History.)
Commission on Interracial Cooperation
by Williams, Wiley J. The Commission on Interracial Cooperation (CIC), founded in 1919 with support from the Julius Rosenwald Fund and based in Atlanta, was dedicated to the improvement of race relations in the South. In [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Company E, 4th U.S. Colored Infantry, at Fort Lincoln
by . Although many African Americans wanted to join the Union army during the first two years of the Civil War, they were often turned away. But after January 1, 1863 -- the day Lincoln delivered the [...] (from Government & Heritage Library, State Library of North Carolina.)
Congress of Racial Equality
by Gavins, Raymond. The Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), founded in Chicago in 1942, crusaded for equality through nonviolence and integration. It came to North Carolina on a 1947 southern bus during a "Journey of [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Constitutional Convention, 1868: "Black Caucus"
by Ijames, Earl. During the antebellum era—the years leading up to the Civil War—North Carolina’s population of free people of color blossomed. This group included American Indians, African Americans, and Americans [...] (from Tar Heel Junior Historian, NC Museum of History.)
Contrabands
by Norris, David A. Contrabands were slaves who escaped to Union lines during the Civil War. When the conflict began, the North's aim was primarily to preserve the Union, not to end slavery. Slaves who escaped to Union [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Convict labor working on a railroad
by . Railroads were often constructed using the labor of incarcerated people. This photograph was taken circa 1890 by Asheville photographer Thomas H. Lindsey. Lindsey was one of the first photographers [...] (from Government & Heritage Library, State Library of North Carolina.)
Cooper, Anna Julia
by Davis, Sarajanee. Cooper, Anna Julia The World Needs to Hear Her Voice  By Sarajanee Davis, N.C. Government & Heritage Library, 2020 From the NCpedia K-8 Collection August 10, 1858-February 27, [...] (from NCpedia K-8 Collection.)
Cooper, Anna Julia Haywood
by Wegner, Ansley Herring. Cooper, Anna Julia 10 Aug. 1858-27 Feb. 1964 by Ansley Wegner, Research Branch, NC Office of Archives and History, 2010; Revised April 2022. www.ncmarkers.com   See also: Anna Julia [...] (from Government & Heritage Library, State Library of North Carolina.)
Copeland, John Anthony: Tar Heels at Harper's Ferry, October 16-18, 1859
by Howard, Joshua. Tar Heels at Harper's Ferry, October 16-18, 1859: John Anthony Copeland By Joshua Howard, Research Branch, NC Office of Archives and History, 2011; Revised March 2022, Government [...] (from Research Branch, NC Office of Archives and History.)
Cover of Opportunity magazine, February 1926
by . Cover of Opportunity magazine, February 1926Cover of Opportunity magazine, February 1926Cover of Opportunity: Journal of Negro Life, February 1926: Industrial Issue. Shows two black silhouetted [...] (from Government & Heritage Library, State Library of North Carolina.)
Crabtree Creek State Park
by Agan, Kelly. Crabtree Creek State Park (William B. Umstead State Park) By Kelly Agan, N.C. Government & Heritage Library, 2015 Established: 1943 GPS [...] (from Government & Heritage Library, State Library of North Carolina.)
Daisy Bates Oral History Excerpt
by . Daisy Bates was a civil rights activist and the head of the state chapter of the NAACP. She served as advisor to the Little Rock Nine, nine black students who enrolled at the all-white Central High [...] (from University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Libraries.)
Dancy, John Campbell, Jr.
by Krieger, Marvin. John Campbell Dancy Jr., editor and public official, was born in Tarboro, the son of John C. Dancy, Sr., a slave who became a freeman and, after the Civil War, was a builder and contractor and an [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Davenport, Willis Haynie
by Hill, Steven. Willis Haynie Davenport, an African American educational leader, was born on August 18, 1900 in Burgess, Virginia to parents Addie Haynie and Warner Davenport. He worked for the Greenville, North [...] (from North Carolina's First Ladies: 1891-2001, North Carolina Historical Publications.)
David Walker's Appeal
by Hunter, Crystal. Born in Wilmington, N.C. in 1785, to a free mother and an enslaved father, David Walker, although deemed free by law, was no stranger to the “avaricious” (a term he uses throughout the Appeal to [...] (from NCpedia.)
Davis, Gary
by Bastin, Bruce. Gary Davis, a blind black street singer and minister, was born in Laurens, S.C., to a farming family and was raised by his grandmother. As a young man he joined the steady stream of rural blacks who [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Davis, Kenny: It's Like Being At War
by Cecelski, David S. I met Kenny Davis during the recent commemoration of the 100th anniversary of the Wilmington race riot of 1898. A century ago, on Nov. 10, 1898, a white mob massacred many blacks and seized the city [...] (from Listening to History, News and Observer.)
Day, Thomas
by Wrenn, Tony P. Thomas Day, cabinetmaker, was the son of Morning S. Day (b. ca. 1766 in Virginia), but his father is unknown. Thomas Day married Aquilla Wilson (b. ca. 1806) of Halifax County, Va., in Halifax on 7 [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Day, Thomas
by Umfleet, LeRae. Thomas Day by LeRae Umfleet Research Branch, NC Office of Archives and History https://www.ncdcr.gov/about/history/division-historical-resources/nc-highway-historical-marker-program See [...] (from Research Branch, NC Office of Archives and History.)
Death to the Klan March
by Schutz, J. Christopher, Stoesen, Alexander R. The "Death to the Klan" March, which took place in Greensboro in late 1979, involved a violent showdown between members of the Communist Workers Party (CWP), the Ku Klux Klan (KKK), and a neo-Nazi [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Delany, Henry Beard
by Reid, Elizabeth Davis. Henry Beard Delany was the first black man to become an Episcopal bishop in North Carolina and only the second in the United States; he was also an educator. He was born in St. Mary's, Ga., the son [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Double Voting
by Barton, Bruce. Double Voting: A Personal Account "'Double Voting' in Robeson County: A Reminder of an Unequal Past" by Bruce Barton Reprinted with permission from the Tar Heel Junior Historian. Fall [...] (from Tar Heel Junior Historian, NC Museum of History.)
Dred
by Inscoe, John C. Dred, published in 1856, was Harriet Beecher Stowe's much-anticipated sequel to Uncle Tom's Cabin (1852) in which she sought to further fan the flames of antislavery sentiment. The book was a [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Drinking fountain on the county courthouse lawn
by . Drinking fountain on the county courthouse lawnAn African American boy stands at an outdoor drinking fountain. A sign on a nearby tree marks the fountain as [...] (from Government & Heritage Library, State Library of North Carolina.)
Dudley, James Benson
by Warlick, Kenneth. Dudley, James Benson by Kenneth Warlick, 1986; Revised by NC Government & Heritage Library, August 2022.  November 2, 1859 – April 4, 1925 See also: Susan Wright Sampson [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Dudley, Susan Wright Sampson
by Stewart, Shavon. Dudley, Susan Wright Sampson (Susie B.) ca. 1852-10 April 1933 By Shavon Stewart, North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University, 2019 See also: James Benson [...] (from The Way We Lived in North Carolina, NC Office of Archives and History and UNC Press.)
Duncan, Samuel Edward, Jr.
by Edinger, Lois V. Duncan, Samuel Edward, Jr., educator and college president, was born in Madisonville, Ky., the oldest of seven children of Samuel E. and Lena B. Duncan. At a time when blacks did not find it easy to [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Dunmore's Ethiopian Regiment
by Causey, Ellen Fitzgibbons. Dunmore's Ethiopian Regiment consisted of runaway slaves who served as English troops under the last royal governor of Virginia, Lord John Dunmore. In November 1775 Dunmore, who had wearied of [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Eagleson II, Wilson
by Bates, Doris McLean. Wilson Vash Eagleson II A Tuskegee Airman 1920 - 2006 by Doris McLean Bates Reprinted with permission from the Tar Heel Junior Historian, Fall 2003. Tar Heel Junior Historian Association, NC [...] (from Tar Heel Junior Historian, NC Museum of History.)
Early Settlement
by Goldfield, David R. During the late 17th century, settlement in North Carolina proceeded from Virginia migration, first into the Albemarle region, then into the Pamlico district. By 1710, the new sparsely settled [...] (from North Carolina Atlas Revisited.)
Edmonds, Helen Grey
by Agan, Kelly, Davis, Sarajanee. Helen Edmonds was an American historian, university professor and civic leader. She is especially noted for her 1947 Ph.D. dissertation as well as her thirty-six-year career at North Carolina Central [...] (from Government & Heritage Library, State Library of North Carolina.)
Elder, Alfonso
by Reid, G. W. Alfonso Elder, college president, was the son of Lucy Lillian Phinizy and Thomas J. Elder, of Sandersville, Ga., who were also the parents of Blanche and Charles Elder. Alfonso received his early [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Elizabeth City State University
by Wadelington, Charles W. Elizabeth City State University by Charles W. Wadelington, 2006 See also: University of North Carolina System; Historically Black Colleges and Universities for K-8 [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Ellison, Stewart
by Reid, Elizabeth Davis. Ellison, Stewart by Elizabeth Davis Reid, 1986; Updated by NC Government & Heritage Library, August 2022. March 8, 1832 - October 24, 1899 Stewart Ellison, building contractor [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Emancipation Day
by Towles, Louis P. Emancipation Day by Louis P. Towles, 2006 Emancipation Day in North Carolina was initiated on 1 Jan. 1865 at Union-occupied New [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Eppes, Charles Montgomery
by Hill, Steven. Eppes, Charles Montgomery By Steven A. Hill. Copyright 2017. Published with permission. For personal educational use and not for further distribution. 25 Dec 1858 - [...] (from Research Branch, NC Office of Archives and History.)
Eppes, Henry
by Hill, Steven. Eppes, Henry By Steven A. Hill. Copyright 2017. Published with permission. For personal educational use and not for further distribution. 16 Sept 1830 - 29 Jan 1903 See also: Eppes, Charles [...] (from Government & Heritage Library, State Library of North Carolina.)
Equal Rights League
by Justesen, Benjamin R. The North Carolina State Equal Rights League, founded in 1865, grew out of the state's first freedmen's convention, held in Raleigh on 29 Sept. 1865. Although the state was ruled by Presidential [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Era of Progress and Promise: Book overview
by Underhill, Michelle Czaikowski. Published in 1910, An Era of Progress and Promise documents topics discussed and explored at the Clifton Conference, held August 18-20, 1908 at the home of W. N. Hartshorn in Clifton, Massachusetts. [...] (from NC Digital Collections.)
Era of Progress and Promise: Browse biographies
by Allen, Christy E. Era of Progress and Promise: Browse biographies by Christy E. Allen, 2009. Book compiled by W. N. Hartshorn of Clifton, Massachusetts in 1910, concerning the Clifton Conference [...] (from NC Digital Collections.)
Era of Progress and Promise: Browse institutions by location
by Allen, Christy E. Era of Progress and Promise: Browse institutions by location by Christy E. Allen, 2009. See also: Era of Progress and Promise Book compiled by W. N. Hartshorn [...] (from NC Digital Collections.)
Era of Progress and Promise: Browse instutions by name
by Allen, Christy E. Era of Progress and Promise: Browse institutions by name by Christy E. Allen, 2009. Book compiled by W. N. Hartshorn of Clifton, Massachusetts in 1910, concerning the Clifton [...] (from NC Digital Collections.)
Estatoe Path
by Moore, David G. Estatoe Path was a long-established Indian trail that linked the eighteenth-century Cherokee Lower Towns of northwestern South Carolina and northeastern Georgia with the French Broad River Valley in [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Etchoe, Battle of
by Anderson, William L. The Battle of Etchoe took place during the Cherokee War of 1760-61 between the Cherokee and the English. That war, a subconflict within the French and Indian War, began when whites murdered a number [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Evans, Henry
by Rives, Ralph Hardee. Henry Evans, popular black preacher, was credited with being "the father of the Methodist Church, white and black, in Fayetteville, and the best preacher of his time in that quarter," according to [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Excerpt from interview with Louella Odessa Saunders Ama
by . Excerpt from interview with Louella Odessa Saunders AmaExcerpt from interview with Louella Odessa Saunders AmaMrs. Amar talks about sewing and self-sufficiency in the [...] (from University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Libraries.)
Exodusters
by Steelman, Lala Carr. Exodusters were African Americans who fled North Carolina because of economic and political grievances after the Reconstruction era. Although there was a steady trickle of black emigrants from the [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Exploring North Carolina: African American History
by . This page gathers resources in NCpedia that cover the history and heritage of African Americans in North Carolina from the colonial era to the present day.  It does not include all resources in [...] (from NCpedia.)
Faduma, Orishatukeh
by Deveneaux, Gustav H. K. Faduma, Orishatukeh by Gustav H. K. Deveneaux (1855–25 Jan. 1946) Orishatukeh Faduma, teacher and minister, was born in Guyana, South America (formerly British Guiana), to John and Omolofi [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Fayetteville State University
by Wadelington, Charles W. Fayetteville State University by Charles W. Wadelington, 2006 See also: University of North Carolina System; Historically Black Colleges and Universities for K-8 [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Fisher, Alfred: Bay River
by Cecelski, David S. I visited Alfred Fisher in Pamlico County, three hours east of Raleigh. Now retired from his job as a chemist at a Weyerhaeuser pulp mill, he is active in the county historical society and has been [...] (from Listening to History, News and Observer.)
Fitzgerald, Robert George
by Krieger, Marvin. Robert George Fitzgerald, soldier, farmer, educator, and businessman, was born to Thomas Charles Fitzgerald (ca. 1808–1879) and Sarah Ann Burton Fitzgerald (ca. 1818–ca. 1889) in New Castle County, [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Flack, Roberta
by Franke, Matthew. Roberta Flack is a Grammy-winning singer, songwriter, and pianist renowned for her smooth, "velvety" voice. Born in Black Mountain in Buncombe County on February 10, 1937, she was one of four [...] (from NCpedia.)
For White People Only. Others Please Keep Out.
by . This illustration from Charles Waddell Chesnutt's 1901 short story "The Bouquet" shows Sophy, an African American girl, peering through the gate of a cemetery that was open to whites only. The [...] (from Government & Heritage Library, State Library of North Carolina.)
Forbes, David: The Birth of the SNCC
by Cecelski, David S. Two months earlier, on Feb. 1, 1960, four black students at North Carolina A&T sat down at a "whites only" lunch counter at a Woolworth's Department Store in Greensboro. They politely requested [...] (from Listening to History, News and Observer.)
Forced Migration of African Americans
by Farley, Jennifer. This African chant mourns the loss of Olaudah Equiano, an eleven-year-old boy who, in 1755, was kidnapped from his home in what is now Nigeria. He was purchased by a captain in the British Royal [...] (from Tar Heel Junior Historian, NC Museum of History.)
Fortescue, John Henry: Guitar Shorty
by . In the early 1970s, a one-of-a-kind artist lived near Elm City—the blues guitarist, singer, and musical storyteller John Henry Fortescue. Known as Guitar Shorty, Fortescue—who was originally from [...] (from North Carolina Arts Council.)
Foster, Allen
by Hollingsworth, Biff, West, Tim. Foster, Allen by Biff Hollingsworth and Tim West, Special Collections at Wilson Library at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2008 ? - January 24, 1936 In the summer of 1935, a [...] (from University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Libraries.)
Frank Johnson's Band
by Parramore, Thomas C. Frank Johnson's Band was a popular brass ensemble of African American musicians that played frequently at health spas, balls, tournaments, state fairs, and other occasions from the 1830s to about [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Freedman's Savings and Trust Company
by Tetterton, Beverly. Freedman's Savings and Trust Company by Beverly Tetterton, 2006 The Freedman's Savings and Trust Company, universally known as the Freedman's Bank, was chartered on 3 Mar. 1865. It grew out [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Freedmen's Bureau
by Alexander, Roberta Sue. The Freedmen's Bureau, officially the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, was created by Congress in 1865 after months of debate. The Freedmen's Bureau controlled abandoned and [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Freedmen's Conventions
by Jones, H. G. Freedmen's conventions in 1865 and 1866 voiced the aspirations of North Carolina blacks, both those previously classified as free and former slaves. The Civil War had been over only five months when [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Freedom Rallies: Williamston, N.C., 1963
by Hill, Michael. Freedom Rallies: Williamston, N.C., 1963 By Michael Hill Research Branch, NC Office of Archives and History, [...] (from Research Branch, NC Office of Archives and History.)
Freeman, Ralf
by Woodard, John R., Jr. Ralf Freeman, Baptist minister, was born a slave in Anson County; his parents are not known. He belonged to John Culpeper, a Baptist minister and pastor of the Rocky River Baptist Church, Anson [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Frinks, Golden
by Spicer, Shirl. With fists raised, members of the audience paid homage to “The Great Agitator” on July 24, 2004, as North Carolina laid to rest one of its greatest unsung heroes of the Civil Rights movement—Golden [...] (from Tar Heel Junior Historian, NC Museum of History.)
Fulton, Allen
by Bastin, Bruce. Allen, Fulton by Bruce Bastin 10 July 1907-13 Feb. [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Fulton, David Bryant
by Andrews, William L. David Bryant Fulton, black polemicist and author, was born in Fayetteville to Benjamin and Lavinia Robinson Fulton. His early childhood was spent in the Fayetteville area, but he grew up in [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Garrett, Denison Dover
by Hill, Steven. Garrett, Denison Dover By Steven A. Hill. Copyright 2017. Published with permission. For personal educational use and not for further distribution. 6 May 1915 - 28 May 2011 Denison Dover [...] (from Government & Heritage Library, State Library of North Carolina.)
General Education Board
by Williams, Wiley J. The General Education Board (GEB) was a philanthropic organization endowed by the Rockefeller family and chartered in 1903 by the U.S. Congress for "the promotion of education in the United States of [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Geneva Perry and the International Sweethearts
by . In eastern North Carolina, public school band directors have often played a crucial role in inspiring and instructing rising generations of musicians. One of the most influential band directors of [...] (from North Carolina Arts Council.)
George Henry White
by . George Henry WhiteGeorge Henry White (1852-1918) represented North Carolina's second district in the U.S. House of Representatives from 1897 to [...] (from Government & Heritage Library, State Library of North Carolina.)
Goler, William Harvey
by Krieger, Marvin. Goler, William Harvey by Marvin Krieger, 1986 1 Jan. 1846–22 Feb. 1939 William Harvey Goler, educator, church leader, and president of Livingstone College, Salisbury, was born in Halifax, [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Gore, Eugene W.: The Smell of Money
by Cecelski, David S. Born in 1916, Capt. Eugene W. Gore worked his way up from kitchen boy to become one of the first African-American captains in the great menhaden fishing fleet of North Carolina. I talked with him at [...] (from Listening to History, News and Observer.)
Grandy, Moses
by Mitchell, Samantha. Grandy, Moses by Samantha Mitchell, North Carolina State University, 2013; Revised April 2022 b.1786? Moses Grandy was a skilled seaman and black antislavery activist born into slavery [...] (from University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Libraries.)
Grant, Ernest James
by Pollitt, Phoebe Ann. Originally published in "North Carolina Nursing History." Republished with permission. For personal educational use and not for further distribution. Please submit permission requests for other uses [...] (from Appalachian State University.)
Grant, Gary: A Boy Scout Jamboree to Remember
by Cecelski, David S. I visited with Gary Grant in Tillery, a rural, African-American community in Halifax County, 100 miles northeast of Raleigh. Raised in an experimental resettlement community in Tillery in which FDR's [...] (from Listening to History, News and Observer.)
Great Migration
by McKinley, Cynthia Risser, McKinley, Shepherd W. The Great Migration and North Carolina by Dr. Shepherd W. McKinley and Cynthia Risser McKinley Reprinted with permission from the Tar Heel Junior Historian. Spring 2006. Tar Heel Junior [...] (from Tar Heel Junior Historian, NC Museum of History.)
Green, John Patterson
by Andrews, William L. John Patterson Green, African-American attorney, legislator, and author, was born in New Bern, the only son of John Rice Green, a tailor, and Temperance Durden Green, a seamstress after her husband's [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Greensboro Four
by Huaman, Jaime. Greensboro Four: David Richmond, Franklin McCain, Ezell Blair Jr. (Jibreel Khazan), Joe McNeil Civil Rights Sit-Ins at Woolworth by Jaime Huaman, Government & Heritage [...] (from NCpedia.)
Gregory Normal Institute
by Hill, Michael. The New England-based American Missionary Association (AMA) was founded in 1846 by the Congregational Church and was dedicated to promoting antislavery feeling North and South. Among its early [...] (from Research Branch, NC Office of Archives and History.)
Groves, Harry E.
by . Groves, Harry E. By University of North Carolina Libraries, 1999 4 Sep 1921 - 24 Aug 2013 Harry E. Groves was born in Manitou Springs, Colo., on 4 September 1921. An African American in a [...] (from University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Libraries.)
Hammocks Beach State Park
by Agan, Kelly. Hammocks Beach State Park By North Carolina Division of Parks and Recreation, 2015; Kelly Agan, N.C. Government & Heritage Library, [...] (from NC Division of Parks and Recreation, NC Dept. of Natural and Cultural Resources.)
Harris, Bravid Washington
by London, Lawrence F. Bravid Washington Harris, Episcopal priest and bishop, was born in Warrenton, the son of Bravid Washington and Margaret Burgess Harris. After receiving his preparatory education in Warrenton, he [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Harris, James Henry
by Alexander, Roberta Sue. James Henry Harris, North Carolina politician, was born in Granville County. Described as "a base born boy of color," he was apprenticed on 3 Aug. 1840 to Charles Allen to learn the carpenter trade; [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Hawkins, Reginald Armistice
by Carrier, Sarah. Dr. Reginald Armistice Hawkins, nicknamed “Hawk,” was a lifelong civil rights activist who played a central role in integrating Charlotte schools, hospitals, and public spaces, and in 1968 became the [...] (from University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Libraries.)
Henderson, William B.
by Macfie, John. William B. Henderson, African-American state senator, farmer, and resident of Middleburg, was elected to the North Carolina General Assembly in 1892 as a Republican representative from the Eleventh [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Higgs, George and the Bull City Blues
by Wells, Mike "Lightnin'". For more than sixty years, George Higgs, of Tarboro in Edgecombe County, has been playing and singing the blues in his community and in places as far away as Australia and Switzerland—carrying on a [...] (from Tar Heel Junior Historian, NC Museum of History.)
Hill, William M.: At the Mortar Box
by Cecelski, David S. I visited with master plasterer William M. Hill at his home in Clinton, an hour southeast of Raleigh. At age 77, he is renowned for his painstaking restorations of some of the state's most historic [...] (from Listening to History, News and Observer.)
Historically Black Colleges and Universities: Marching to the beat of Freedom
by Davis, Sarajanee. Historically Black Colleges and Universities: Marching to the beat of Freedom By Sarajanee Davis, N.C. Government & Heritage Library, 2019 Have you ever heard the term [...] (from NCpedia K-8 Collection.)
Holland, Annie Wealthy
by Shaber, Sarah R. Annie Wealthy Holland, educator, was born in Isle of Wight County, Va., on a plot of land contiguous to the Wealthy plantation, where her grandmother had been a slave. She was the daughter of John [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Hood, James Walker
by Bell, John L., Jr. James Walker Hood, clergyman, educator, and bishop, the son of Levi and Harriet Walker Hood, was born on the farm of Ephraim Jackson in Chester County, Pa., nine miles from Wilmington, Del. His [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Hopkins, Moses Aaron
by Wegner, Ansley Herring. Hopkins, Moses Aaron by Ansley Wegner Research Branch, NC Office of Archives and History, 2006. http://www.ncmarkers.com December 25, 1846 - August 7, 1886 Moses Aaron Hopkins, educator [...] (from Research Branch, NC Office of Archives and History.)
Horrid Massacre in Virginia
by . Composite of scenes of Nat Turner's rebellion. Caption reads: The Scenes which the above Plate is designed to repesent are -- Fig. 1. A Mother intreating for the lives of her Children. -- 2. Mr [...] (from Government & Heritage Library, State Library of North Carolina.)
Horton, George Moses
by Walser, Richard. George Moses Horton, poet, was born enslaved by William Horton in Northampton County. George Moses Horton's mother, his five older half sisters, his younger brother and three sisters were also [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Hunter, Aaron Burtis
by Bennington, Catherine Myers. Aaron Burtis Hunter, Episcopal clergyman, educator, book collector, and philanthropist, was born in Philadelphia, Pa., the son of John C. and Sarah A. Clark Hunter. After graduation from public [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Hunter, Charles Norfleet
by Byrd, Robert L. Charles Norfleet Hunter, educator, was born in Raleigh at the home of his father, Osborne Hunter, a Negro artisan. His mother, Mary Hunter, though a slave owned by William Dallas Haywood of Raleigh, [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Hyman, John Adams
by Elmore, Joseph E. John Adams Hyman, politician, state senator, and congressman, was born a slave near Warrenton, Warren County. Sold and sent to Alabama, he returned to Warren County in 1865 a free man. With the rise [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Immanuel College
by Calhoon, Robert M. Immanuel College in Greensboro was a residential high school, junior college, and theological seminary for African Americans operated by the Missouri Synod of the Lutheran Church from 1903 to 1961. [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Impending Crisis of the South, The
by Faulkner, Ronnie W. The Impending Crisis of the South by Ronnie W. Faulkner, 2006 The Impending Crisis of the South, by Rowan County born abolitionist Hinton Rowan Helper (1829-1909), was published by A. B. [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Inborden, Thomas Sewell
by Rives, Ralph Hardee. Inborden, Thomas Sewell by Ralph Hardee Rives, 1988 6 Jan. 1865–10 Mar. 1951 See also: Brick School; Era of Progress and Promise Thomas Sewell Inborden, black educator, was born near [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Insurance
by Diem, Gordon Neal. Insurance by Gordon Neal Diem, 2006 See also: Blue Cross and Blue Shield of North Carolina; Durham Life Insurance Company; Jefferson-Pilot Corporation; North Carolina Mutual Life Insurance [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Inventors, North Carolina
by Davis, Lenwood. Many people are unaware of the numerous inventions and scientific breakthroughs that have happened in North Carolina. They probably have heard of Wilbur and Orville Wright and the first sustained, [...] (from Tar Heel Junior Historian, NC Museum of History.)
J. Cole
by Eckard, Max. Jermain Lamar Cole, better known by his stage name, J. Cole, is a Grammy-nominated rapper, singer and producer from Fayetteville, NC. In 2009, he became the first artist to be signed to Jay-Z's Roc [...] (from NCpedia.)
Jackson, Della Hayden Raney
by Pollitt, Phoebe Ann. Originally published in "North Carolina Nursing History." Republished with permission. For personal educational use and not for further distribution. Please submit permission requests for other uses [...] (from Appalachian State University.)
Jacobs, Harriet
by Yellin, Jean Fagan. Harriet Jacobs by Jean Fagan Yellin, Revised March 2022 by NC Government and Heritage Library  See also: Harriet Ann Jacobs for K-8 students February 11, 1813 [or 1815] - March 7, [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Jacobs, Harriet Ann
by Davis, Sarajanee. Jacobs, Harriet Ann Writing for Women By Sarajanee Davis, N.C. Government & Heritage Library, 2019 From the NCpedia K-8 Collection February 11, 1813-March 7, 1897 Do you think you [...] (from NCpedia K-8 Collection.)
James Brown Band: "Almost Like a Kinston Band”
by . James Brown Band: "Almost Like a Kinston Band" by the North Carolina Arts Council. Originally published in African American Music Trails of Eastern North Carolina, copyright 2013. Republished [...] (from North Carolina Arts Council.)
James City
by Zipf, Karin Lorene. James City in Craven County evolved during the Civil War and Reconstruction years as an independent community of Black and African American North Carolinians, most of whom had been [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Jeanes Fund
by Williams, Wiley J. The Jeanes Fund, the popular name for the Negro Rural School Fund of the Anna T. Jeanes Foundation, was endowed by a Philadelphia Quaker benefactor in 1907 with $1 million. The original board of [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Jenkins, Ammie: Where The Cool Waters Run In Her Memory
by Cecelski, David S. I visited Ammie Jenkins in Spring Lake, in Cumberland County, 50 miles south of Raleigh. She is one of the state's most dynamic advocates for black farming and landownership. As the founder and [...] (from Listening to History, News and Observer.)
Joel, Lawrence
by Jones, H. G. Lawrence Joel, the first black man to receive the Medal of Honor for battlefield heroism, was born in the slums of Winston-Salem to Trenton and Mary Ellen Joel, but at age eight he was unofficially [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
John Chavis: Pioneering Teacher & Preacher
by Agan, Kelly, Davis, Sarajanee. Chavis, John Pioneering Teacher & Preacher   By Sarajanee Davis and Kelly Agan, N.C. Government & Heritage Library, 2020 From the NCpedia K-8 Collection c. [...] (from NCpedia K-8 Collection.)
Johnson C. Smith University
by Martin, James I., Sr. Johnson C. Smith University by James I. Martin Sr., 2006 See Also: Historically Black Colleges and Universities; Private Education; Private Higher Education; Historically Black Colleges [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Johnson Jr., Henry Vanderbilt: The Engelhard Cafe
by Cecelski, David S. Recently, Dr. Henry Vanderbilt Johnson Jr. shared a story with me about an unsung little moment in our state's civil rights history: a cafe brawl in Engelhard, a fishing village in Hyde County. The [...] (from Listening to History, News and Observer.)
Johnson, Clifton
by Johnson, Charles. Johnson, Clifton Earl By Charles D. Johnson, North Carolina Central University, 2020 Clifton Earl “Cliff” Johnson was a pioneer African American jurist. He was born in 1941 in Williamston, [...] (from Government & Heritage Library, State Library of North Carolina.)
Johnson, Edward Austin
by Gatewood, Willard B., Jr. Johnson, Edward Austin Willard B. Gatewood, Jr., 1988; Revised March 2022, Government & Heritage Library  Related Entries: Civil Rights; African Americans; Slavery 23 Nov. [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Johnson, Janie Settles
by Parrish, Thomas, IV. Janie Settles was the the first African-American female rescue chief in North Carolina. She was born and grew up in Littleton in Halifax County, the youngest of the fourteen children of John Wesley [...] (from NCpedia.)
Jones Lake State Park
by . Jones Lake State Park By North Carolina Division of Parks and Recreation, 2015 https://ncparks.gov/ Established: 1939 GPS Coordinates: 34.682743, -78.595423 Size: 1,669 [...] (from NC Division of Parks and Recreation, NC Dept. of Natural and Cultural Resources.)
Jones, Alice Eley: Herring Fish
by Cecelski, David S. Historian Alice Eley Jones and I recently got into her Jeep and went in search of herring -- or at least the history of herring fishing. We were in Murfreesboro, her hometown. Herring have been an [...] (from Listening to History, News and Observer.)
Jones, James H.
by Beck, Raymond L. Jones, James Henry by Raymond L. Beck, 1988; Revised by NC Government & Heritage Library, May 2022 (March 27) 1831–April 8, 1921 James Henry Jones, coachman and [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Jones, John
by Powell, William S. John Jones, businessman and leader for blacks' rights, was born in Greene County, the son of a German named Bromfield and a free mulatto mother. Afraid that his father would take away her son, John's [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Jones, Marvin Tupper: Pleasant Plains
by Cecelski, David S. I recently joined Marvin Tupper Jones at his family's annual reunion and fish fry. We were in Pleasant Plains, part of an extraordinary, 9-mile-long swath of land in the state's rural, northeast [...] (from Listening to History, News and Observer.)
Jones, Marvin: Making a Day
by Cecelski, David S. Marvin Jones started working for the Export Leaf Tobacco Company in Wilson in 1946. At that time, Wilson was the largest bright-leaf tobacco market in the world. The buying, processing and selling of [...] (from Listening to History, News and Observer.)
Jones, Thomas H.
by Leder, Eric. Thomas H. Jones was a self-educated abolitionist, minister, and author who spent much of his early life in Wilmington, North Carolina. Most information about Jones is from his popular autobiography [...] (from NCpedia.)
Jordan, Michael
by Case, Steven. Michael Jordan may have been born in Brooklyn, but North Carolina claims him as one of our own. The Jordan family moved to North Carolina when Michael Jordan was very small and he grew up in [...] (from Government & Heritage Library, State Library of North Carolina.)
Jordan, Michael
by Thompson, Taylor. Think about the shoes you’ve seen others wear. Have you ever seen someone wearing Air Jordans? If so, you might know that they get their name from Michael Jordan. He is a legendary basketball player. [...] (from NCpedia K-8 Collection.)
Joseph Keasbey Brick Agricultural, Industrial, and Normal School (Brick School)
by Cross, Jerry L. Joseph Keasbey Brick Agricultural, Industrial, and Normal School (Brick School): 1895-1933 By Jerry Cross, 1979 Research Branch, NC Office of Archives and History, [...] (from Research Branch, NC Office of Archives and History.)
Journey of Reconciliation, 1947
by . In 1947 the Congress of Racial Equality & local citizens, black & white, protested bus segregation. Setting out from Washington, D.C., "freedom riders" tested compliance with a U.S. Supreme [...] (from Research Branch, NC Office of Archives and History.)
Kay, Willie Virginia Otey
by Bell-Kite, Diana, Agan, Kelly. KAY, WILLIE VIRGINIA OTEY 17 Mar. 1894 – 25 Sept. 1992 By Diana Bell-Kite, NC Museum of History and Kelly Agan, NC Government & Heritage Library, 2016 “You have [...] (from North Carolina Museum of History.)
Keckly (Keckley), Elizabeth Hobbs
by Wegner, Ansley Herring. Keckly (Keckley), Elizabeth Hobbs by Ansley Wegner, Research Branch, NC Office of Archives and History, 2013 www.ncmarkers.com Elizabeth Hobbs Keckly [...] (from Research Branch, NC Office of Archives and History.)
Kinston's Tobacco Warehouses: Music Venues and Dance Halls
by . Kinston's Tobacco Warehouses: Music Venues and Dance Halls by the North Carolina Arts Council.  Originally published in African American Music Trails of Eastern North Carolina, copyright [...] (from North Carolina Arts Council.)
Kittrell College
by Wadelington, Charles W. Kittrell College by Charles W. Wadelington, 2006 See also: Historically Black Colleges and Universities; Era of Progress and Promise: Book overview; Historically Black Colleges and [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Knight, Rudolph: History Right Here
by Cecelski, David S. Rudolph Knight is the caretaker of Tarboro's African-American past. Even as a child, he treasured his elders' stories about the Eastern North Carolina town, especially the stories from the 1880s and [...] (from Listening to History, News and Observer.)
Land Grant Colleges
by Towles, Louis P. Land Grant Colleges by Louis P. Towles, 2006 See also: North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University; North Carolina State University; Land Grants Land Grant Colleges were [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Lane, Lunsford
by Cotten, Alice R. Lunsford Lane, slave, businessman, free black, and lecturer, was the only child of Edward and Clarissa Lane, slaves from Raleigh. His parents had assumed the surname of Lane from the white family [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Leary, Lewis S.: Tar Heels at Harper's Ferry, October 16-18, 1859
by Howard, Joshua. Tar Heels at Harper's Ferry, October 16-18, 1859: Lewis S. Leary By Joshua Howard, Research Branch, NC Office of Archives and History, 2011; Revised March 2020 by NC Government and [...] (from Research Branch, NC Office of Archives and History.)
Lee, Howard
by Graham, Nicholas. Howard Lee by Nicholas GrahamUNC - North Carolina Collection, 2004. Updated by Michelle Czaikowski, 2010."This Month in North Carolina History" series. Reprinted with [...] (from University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Libraries.)
Leonard Medical School
by Murray, Elizabeth D. R. The Leonard Medical School, established in Raleigh by Shaw University in 1880, was the first four-year medical school in the United States and trained more than 400 Black and African American [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Leonard, Sugar Ray
by Case, Steven. Ray Charles Leonard, known as the boxing champion "Sugar Ray" Leonard (after the champion boxer Sugar Ray Robinson), was born on May 17, 1956 in Wilmington, North Carolina to Getha Leonard and [...] (from Government & Heritage Library, State Library of North Carolina.)
Lewis, Joe: We Weren't Afraid
by Cecelski, David S. I met Joe Lewis in Louisburg, the county seat of Franklin County, 25 miles northeast of Raleigh. A vigorous 81-year-old who still breaks and trains horses, Lewis has never considered himself a civil [...] (from Listening to History, News and Observer.)
Livingstone College
by Wadelington, Charles W. Livingstone College by Charles W. Wadelington, 2006; Additional research provided by Kelly Agan; Revised December 2021 See also: Private Education; Private Higher Education; Historically [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Lockamy, Fred: Sorrow Valley
by Cecelski, David S. On April 9, 1968, 16-year-old Fred Lockamy and four of his longtime friends decided to strike back at the Ku Klux Klan by burning down its local meeting hall. They lived in a black neighborhood in [...] (from Listening to History, News and Observer.)
Long Lance, Buffalo Child
by Smith, Donald B. Long Lance, Buffalo Child [Clark Long, Sylvester]  by Donald B. Smith, 1991 1 Dec. 1890–20 Mar. 1932 Buffalo Child Long Lance, author and actor, was one of the best-known North [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Lowe, Dazelle Foster
by Pronovost, Emily, von der Heide, Mary. Lowe, Dazelle Foster By Mary von der Heide and Emily Pronovost, NCSU Libraries, 2007 Originally published in Green 'N' Growing, The History of Home Demonstration and 4-H Youth Development in [...] (from NCSU Libraries.)
Lynch, Loretta
by Davis, Sarajanee. On April 27, 2015, Loretta Lynch was sworn in as Attorney General of the United States. President Barack Obama nominated Lynch to succeed Eric Holder. Lynch became the first African American woman to [...] (from Government & Heritage Library, State Library of North Carolina.)
Lynching
by Baker, Bruce E. Lynching, the unlawful killing of a person by a mob and one of the most extreme forms of community sanction, occurred in North Carolina on numerous occasions. The term originally referred to [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Mabley, Jackie (Moms)
by Gillespie, James D. Mabley, Jackie (Moms) by James D. Gillespie 1898–23 May 1975 (1898–23 May 1975), comedienne and actress, was born Loretta Mary Aiken in Brevard, the daughter of "Uncle" Jim and Mary Aiken. [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Maceo and Melvin Parker: Early Influences
by . Maceo and Melvin Parker: Early Influences by the North Carolina Arts Council. Originally published in African American Music Trails of Eastern North Carolina, copyright 2013. Republished with [...] (from North Carolina Arts Council.)
Madge Hopkins Oral History Excerpt (desegregation)
by . Madge Hopkins attended segregated schools in Charlotte, North Carolina. She remembers hearing abut Dorothy Counts, a young woman she knew through church, becoming one of the first four students to [...] (from University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Libraries.)
Malcolm X Liberation University
by Toosi, Nahal. Malcolm X Liberation University (MXLU), an experimental institution of higher education focusing on African American history and life, opened in Durham in October 1969. Named for slain black leader [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Manly, Alex
by Miller, Daniel R. Alex Manly, black newspaper editor and Republican party leader in Wilmington, published the Wilmington Daily Record, which described itself as "the only negro daily in the world." The Record covered [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Manly, Alex
by Hill, Michael, Umfleet, LeRae. Alex Manly was born near Raleigh in 1866. Family tradition maintains that his father was Charles Manly, who served as governor of North Carolina from 1849 to 1851. There is some confusion about [...] (from NC Office of Archives and History.)
Manumission Societies
by Norris, David A., Kirkman, Roger N. Manumission societies began as an eighteenth-century movement to abolish slavery through voluntary emancipation. The undertaking was initiated primarily by the Society of Friends (Quakers) on grounds [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Maroons
by Smith, William S., Jr. Maroons by William S. Smith, 2006 See also: African Americans; Great Dismal Swamp; Slave Rebellions; [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Marriage certificate issued by the Freedmen's Bureau
by . A marriage certificate issued by the Freedmen's Bureau legally recognizing the marriage of Sarah Ann to Benjamin Berry Manson, who were formerly enslaved in Tennessee. Sarah and B. B. had [...] (from Government & Heritage Library, State Library of North Carolina.)
Martin Luther King, Jr.: Speech in Rocky Mount, N.C., November 1962
by . A speech by Martin Luther King, Jr. in Rocky Mount on November 27, 1962, has drawn much attention. In that address, before 1,800 in the gymnasium at Booker T. Washington High School (that building [...] (from Research Branch, NC Office of Archives and History.)
McCoy, Eddie: Write-Off Kids
by Cecelski, David S. Eddie McCoy stands at the heart of historian Tim Tyson's stirring new memoir, "Blood Done Sign My Name." The book tells the heart-rending story of the 1970 racial murder of a black man named Henry [...] (from Listening to History, News and Observer.)
McDougal Terrace clean-up campaign
by . Men, women, and children using shovels and brooms to sweep a street during a clean-up campaign at McDougal Terrace in Durham, North Carolina, March, 1968. Barnes took pictures of the locals, [...] (from Government & Heritage Library, State Library of North Carolina.)
McGirt, James Ephraim
by Andrews, William L. James Ephraim McGirt, black poet, editor, and publisher, was born in Robeson County near the town of Lumberton. The son of Madison and Ellen Townsend McGirt, he grew up on the family farm and was [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
McKoy, Millie-Christine
by Umfleet, LeRae. Millie-Christine McKoy by LeRae Umfleet, 2010 Research Branch, NC Office of Archives and [...] (from Research Branch, NC Office of Archives and History.)
Mebane, George Allen
by Kenzer, Robert C. George Allen Mebane, black educator, legislator, editor, businessman, and writer, was born at the Hermitage in Bertie County of slave parents. His father was Allen Mebane. Nothing is known of his [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Melbourn, Julius
by Murray, Elizabeth D. R. Julius Melbourn, said to have been born on 4 July 1790 in Wake County, was apparently a fictitious character invented to perpetrate a literary hoax. In 1847 the firm of Hall and Dickson in Syracuse, [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Menhaden Chanteymen
by Foote, Margaret, Kress, Kelly. The Menhaden Chanteymen are a group of retired African American fishermen who previously worked off the coast near Beaufort. The group, during their working years, used singing to synchronize the [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Merrick, John
by Weare, Walter B. John Merrick, black businessman, community leader, and founder of the North Carolina Mutual Life Insurance Company, was born in Sampson County, the son of a slave mother; his father is unknown. At [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Mitchell, John W.
by Stewart, James. Mitchell, John William By James Stewart, NCSU Libraries, 2015 Originally published as "Life of An Extension Agent: John W. Mitchell," Special Collections News, NCSU Libraries, December 11, [...] (from NCSU Libraries.)
Moore, Aaron McDuffie
by Weare, Walter B. Aaron McDuffie Moore, black physician, businessman, and humanitarian, was born in Columbus County. His parents belonged to the third generation of Negro-Indian-Caucasian families who had owned land [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Moore, Peter Weddick
by Ingram, Charles M. Peter Weddick Moore, educator, was born near Faison in Duplin County, the son of Weddick and Alecy Thompson Moore, both slaves. His father allegedly was killed by the Ku Klux Klan during [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Moore, William John
by Powell, William S. Moore, William John by William S. Powell, 1991 4 Apr. 1837–post-1901 See also:  African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church (from the Encyclopedia of North Carolina); African Methodist [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Moses, Athenia: Standing Up For The Things We Believed
by Cecelski, David S. Athenia Moses will soon be honored by the Goldsboro-Wayne County branch of the NAACP for something that she did more than half a century ago. At a banquet on Feb. 11, the NAACP will recognize her and [...] (from Listening to History, News and Observer.)
Mrs. Cornelia Neal
by . Mrs. Cornelia Neal Mrs. Cornelia Neal and two other women are pictured seated on a bed, stringing tobacco bags. There is a stove visible in the [...] (from Government & Heritage Library, State Library of North Carolina.)
Mrs. Emma Mitchell, Reidsville, N.C.
by . Mrs. Emma Mitchell, Reidsville, N.C. Mrs. Emma Mitchell and her family are pictured standing on the front porch of their [...] (from Government & Heritage Library, State Library of North Carolina.)
Mrs. Eugenia Allen, Reidsville, N.C.
by . Mrs. Eugenia Allen, Reidsville, N.C. Mrs. Eugenia Allen is pictured seated on a bed in her house. One of her grandchildren is pictured in front of the bed on a [...] (from Government & Heritage Library, State Library of North Carolina.)
Murray, Anna Pauline (Pauli)
by Wegner, Ansley Herring. Murray, Anna Pauline (Pauli) 20 Nov.1910 - 1 Jul. 1985 By Ansley Wegner, Research Branch, NC Office of Archives and History, 2010 NC Highway Historical Marker Program See also: Pauli [...] (from NCpedia.)
My N.C. From A to Z
by . In 2019, the North Carolina African American Heritage Commission published a children's board book titled My N.C. from A to Z. The book was written by folklorist Michelle Lanier and illustrated by [...] (from NCpedia K-8 Collection.)
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
by Gavins, Raymond, Vocci, Robert Blair. National Association for the Advancement of Colored People by Raymond Gavins, 2006 Additional research provided by Robert Blair Vocci. The National Association for the Advancement of [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
National Negro Business League
by Kenzer, Robert C. The National Negro Business League was created by Booker T. Washington in 1900 to encourage black entrepreneurs in the United States. While one of the most visible aspects of the league was its [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Nina Simone: Putting Soul into the Protest
by Davis, Sarajanee. Is Nina Simone one of them? The singer was born Eunice Kathleen Waymon in Tryon, North Carolina. She learned to play the piano at only three years old. Although her family had limited financial [...] (from NCpedia K-8 Collection.)
North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University
by Wadelington, Charles W. North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University by Charles W. Wadelington, 2006 See also: Historically Black Colleges and Universities for K-8 Students North Carolina [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
North Carolina Association of Educators
by Martin, James I., Sr. The North Carolina Association of Educators (NCAE) was formed in 1970 with the union of the white North Carolina Education Association and the black North Carolina Teachers Association. Its earliest [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
North Carolina Central University
by Wadelington, Charles W. North Carolina Central University by Charles W. Wadelington, 2006 See also: Historically Black Colleges and Universities for K-8 Students North Carolina Central University in Durham [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
North Carolina Colored Industrial Association Fair
by McKown, Harry W., Jr. On November 18, 1879, the North Carolina Colored Industrial Association Fair opened in Raleigh at the site of what had been a military hospital. Thousands of African Americans flocked to the state [...] (from University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Libraries.)
North Carolina Historically Black Schools Timeline
by Alston, Christine. North Carolina Historically Black Colleges and Universities Timeline by Christine Alston and Kelly Agan, 2016. See also: Historically Black Colleges and Universities for K-8 [...] (from Government & Heritage Library, State Library of North Carolina.)
North Carolina Industrial Association
by Murray, Elizabeth D. R. The North Carolina Industrial Association (NCIA), an organization of African American civic leaders formed in 1879, was known primarily for its presentation of the annual North Carolina Industrial [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
North Carolina Mutual Insurance Company
by McKown, Harry W., Jr. On the first of April 1899 the North Carolina Mutual Life Insurance Company opened for business in Durham, North Carolina. The first month’s collections, after the payment of commissions, amounted [...] (from University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Libraries.)
North Carolina Mutual Life Insurance Company officers
by . North Carolina Mutual Life Insurance Company officers North Carolina Mutual Life Insurance Company officers, Durham, NC. Left to right: A.M. Moore, John M. Avery, John Merrick, Ed Merrick, C.C. [...] (from Government & Heritage Library, State Library of North Carolina.)
North Carolina Quilts
by . North Carolina Quilts By Kelly Agan, N.C. Government & Heritage Library, [...] (from NCpedia K-8 Collection.)
North Carolina Society in 1953 and in 2003
by Freeze, Gary. North Carolina has always been a place where the old and the new live side by side. The time period from 1953 to 2003 is no different. Although patterns from the past, such as eating barbecue or [...] (from Tar Heel Junior Historian, NC Museum of History.)
North Carolina Teachers Association
by Justesen, Benjamin R. North Carolina Teachers Association by Benjamin R. Justesen, 2006 See also: North Carolina Association of Educators;  Shepard, James Edward (UNC Press, DNCB); Parent-Teacher [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
North Carolina Visionary Artists
by Davis, Sarajanee. North Carolina Visionary Artists By Sarajanee Davis, N.C. Government & Heritage Library, 2020 Do you know what the official folk art of North Carolina is? Well, if your first question is [...] (from NCpedia K-8 Collection.)
North Carolina's Black WWII Experience
by . North Carolina's Black WWII ExperiencePodcast of a UNC-TV Black Issues Forum [...] (from University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Libraries.)
North Carolina's Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs)
by Agan, Kelly, Alston, Christine. North Carolina's Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) See also: Historically Black Colleges and Universities for K-8 Students   Prior to the conclusion of the Civil [...] (from Government & Heritage Library, State Library of North Carolina.)
O'Hara, James Edward
by Elmore, Joseph E. James Edward O'Hara, congressman, Halifax county commissioner, black politician, educator, and lawyer, was born in New York City, the son of an Irish seaman and a West Indian woman. At age six, he [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
O'Kelly, Berry
by Murray, Elizabeth D. R. O'Kelly, Berry by Elizabeth Davis Reid Murray, 1991 ca. 1861–14 Mar. 1931 Berry O'Kelly, merchant, realtor, [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
One Vote Less
by . One Vote Less This cartoon from 1868 depicts an African-American killed by the Ku Klux Klan, with the caption "One Vote [...] (from Government & Heritage Library, State Library of North Carolina.)
Outer Banks Freedom Settlements
by Davis, Sarajanee. Outer Banks  Freedom Flows Along North Carolina’s Coast By Sarajanee Davis, N.C. Government & Heritage Library, 2019 What do you know about the Outer [...] (from NCpedia K-8 Collection.)
Oxley, Lawrence Augustus
by Bell, John L., Jr. Lawrence Augustus Oxley, social worker and civil servant, was born in Boston, Mass., the son of William Junius Brutus and Alice Agatha Martin Oxley. His parents sent him to Prospect Union Preparatory [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Palmer Memorial Institute
by Wadelington, Charles W. Palmer Memorial Institute by Charles W. Wadelington, 2006 See also: Charlotte Hawkins Brown Museum. The Palmer Memorial Institute, located between [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Parker, Kellis Earl
by Carrier, Sarah. Lenoir County native Kellis Earl Parker, an accomplished lawyer, activist, scholar, and musician, was born January 13, 1942 in Kinston, North Carolina. In addition to his distinguished career, Parker [...] (from University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Libraries.)
Parker, Maceo: These Kids are Fantastic
by Cecelski, David S. Maceo Parker: These Kids are Fantastic by David Cecelski. "Listening to History," News & Observer. Published 6/13/2004. Copyrighted. Reprinted with permission. See also Maceo and [...] (from Listening to History, News and Observer.)
Participants, some carrying American flags, marching in the civil rights march, 1965
by . In this black and white photograph, a stream of black and white people are walking down a street in what appears to be a mostly residential neighborhood. Some are carrying American flags while a few [...] (from Government & Heritage Library, State Library of North Carolina.)
Pauli Murray: Perseverance & Power
by Agan, Kelly, Davis, Sarajanee. Murray, Pauli Individual perseverance and community power By Sarajanee Davis and Kelly Agan, N.C.Government & Heritage Library, 2020 From the NCpedia K-8 Collection November 20, [...] (from NCpedia K-8 Collection.)
Pearsall Plan
by Thuesen, Sarah C. On 17 May 1954, the U.S. Supreme Court declared in Brown v. Board of Education that racial segregation in public schools was unconstitutional. In the years that followed, the southern states [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Perkins, Delia: The Waters Came Down
by Cecelski, David S. I met Mayor Delia Perkins at the town hall of Princeville, a historic little town next to the Tar River, 70 miles east of Raleigh. Founded by former slaves in 1865, Princeville was the first town in [...] (from Listening to History, News and Observer.)
Perry, Samuel L.
by Uzzell, Odell. Perry, Samuel L. by Odell Uzzell, 1994 Related Entries: African American; Civil Rights; Transportation; Exodusters b. 1849 Samuel L. Perry, teacher and civil rights activist, resided in [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Phonte
by Eckard, Max. Phonte by Max Eckard, 2012. Years active: 1998-present "I do this all for hip-hop!/ I'm lying...I do this...for my...mortgage...for my bills." -"Dance in the Reign," Charity Starts [...] (from NCpedia.)
Planters and Slaves
by Anderson, Jean B. Planters and Slaves: 1770-1820 By Elizabeth A. Fenn, Peter H. Wood, Harry L. Watson, Thomas H. Clayton, Sydney Nathans, Thomas C. Parramore, and Jean B. Anderson; Maps by Mark Anderson Moore. [...] (from The Way We Lived in North Carolina, NC Office of Archives and History and UNC Press.)
Pollard, John Henry Mingo
by London, Lawrence F. John Henry Mingo Pollard, Episcopal clergyman, was born in Lunenburg County, Va. He read for orders in Petersburg, Va., under the direction of the Reverend Giles B. Cooke, John D. Keiley, and the [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Powell, Sallie: Determined To Teach
by Cecelski, David S. I visited Sallie Powell in Elizabethtown, in Bladen County, in the state's southeast corner. In the era of segregated schooling, she was one of a remarkable generation of African-American teachers [...] (from Listening to History, News and Observer.)
Powell, Sallie: Mr. Dewitt's Lake
by Cecelski, David S. I visited Sallie Powell in Elizabethtown to learn about an all-but-forgotten landmark of African-American history: the swimming beaches and campground at Jones Lake. Created in 1939, Jones Lake State [...] (from Listening to History, News and Observer.)
Presenting a check for war bonds
by . Original title: "The public school children of the South-Central District of Chicago purchased $263,148. 83 in war bonds and stamps...a huge check representing enough money for 125 jeeps, two pursuit [...] (from Government & Heritage Library, State Library of North Carolina.)
Price, Joseph Charles
by Inscoe, John C. Price, Joseph Charles by John Inscoe, 1994 Related Entries: Civil Rights; Civil War; African American; Historically Black Colleges and Universities 10 Feb. 1854–25 Oct. 1893 Joseph [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Princeville
by Hill, Michael. Princeville, an Edgecombe County town incorporated in 1885, originated in 1865 as a resettlement community for ex-slaves. At the close of the Civil War, when Union troops occupied the area around [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Public Education- Part 5: Desegregation and Equality in Public Education
by Mazzocchi, Jay, Johnson, K. Todd, Matthews, Scott, Justesen, Benjamin R., Colomb, Nayda Swonger, Latta, E. Michael. Public Education by Benjamin R. Justesen and Scott Matthews, 2006 Additional research provided by Nayda Swonger Colomb, K. Todd Johnson, E. Michael Latta, and Jay Mazzocchi. See also: [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Pupil Assignment Act
by Campbell, Karl E. The Pupil Assignment Act was North Carolina's first and most effective legislative response to the U.S. Supreme Court's ruling in Brown v. Board of Education. On 17 May 1954 the Court declared that [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Radio Free Dixie
by Williams, Wiley J. Radio Free Dixie was an African American, English-language radio program broadcast from Radio Havana from 1962 to 1965 that called upon "oppressed Negroes to rise and free themselves." Narrated by [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Ralston, Elreta Melton Alexander
by Summey, Virginia L. Elreta Melton Alexander was a pioneering African-American attorney from Greensboro, North Carolina. Born in Smithfield, North Carolina, she was the daughter of a Baptist minister and a teacher, and [...] (from NCpedia.)
Reedy Creek State Park
by Agan, Kelly. Reedy Creek State Park By Kelly Agan, N.C. Government & Heritage Library, 2016 Established: 1950 GPS Coordinates: 35.833731, -78.760208 Size: 1,234 [...] (from Government & Heritage Library, State Library of North Carolina.)
Revels, Hiram Rhoades
by Case, Steven. Hiram Revels was born in Fayetteville, North Carolina, in approximately 1827 (the 1850 Census lists “about 1825”), but an exact birthplace has not been identified. He was born to free parents of [...] (from Government & Heritage Library, State Library of North Carolina.)
Richardson, Willis
by McIntyre, Pattie B. Willis Richardson, playwright, was born in Wilmington, the son of Willis Wilder and Agnes Ann Harper Richardson. After the riot of 1898, he moved with his parents from Wilmington to Washington, D.C. [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Roach, Max
by Franke, Matthew. Maxwell Lemuel Roach was easily one of the most influential jazz drummers of the twentieth century. He was an innovative bandleader who participated in ensembles which pioneered both bebop and cool [...] (from NCpedia.)
Robbins, Parker David
by Powell, William S. Parker David Robbins, soldier, legislator, and inventor, was born in Bertie County, the son of John A. Robbins; his mother's name is unknown. A mulatto with Chowan Indian ancestors, Robbins was [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Rosenwald Schools: Helping Communities Help Themselves
by Agan, Kelly. Have you ever heard of Jim Crow laws? In the 19th and 20th centuries, Jim Crow laws created mandatory separation of races. And they affected all aspects of everyday life for black Americans. Jim [...] (from NCpedia K-8 Collection.)
Rountree, Bennie Robert
by Hill, Steven. Bennie Robert Rountree, a Pitt County Civil Rights leader and 2018 state president of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), was born on April 27, 1935. Both his parents, Leana and [...] (from Research Branch, NC Office of Archives and History.)
Royal Ice Cream Sit-In
by Daniels, Dennis F. The 1960 Greensboro sit-ins sparked a national movement but were not the first such action. Individual and group protest actions prior to 1960, generally isolated and often without wider impact, took [...] (from Research Branch, NC Office of Archives and History.)
Royal Ice Cream Sit-In, Durham, North Carolina
by Agan, Kelly. Royal Ice Cream Sit-In, Durham, North Carolina By Kelly Agan, N.C. Government & Heritage Library, 2019 Have you ever heard about the 1957 ice cream shop protest in Durham, North [...] (from NCpedia K-8 Collection.)
Royal Knights of King David
by Powell, William S. Royal Knights of King David by William S. Powell, 2006 See also: North Carolina Mutual Life Insurance Company. The Royal Knights of King David was an organization formed in 1883 by [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Rush, Christopher
by Carroll, Grady L. E., Sr. Christopher Rush, second superintendent (a title later changed to bishop) of the African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church and a full-blooded African, was born a slave in Craven County. Whether he was [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Said, Omar
by Parramore, Thomas C. Omar Ibn Said, an Islamic scholar, was born in Futa Toro (now a part of Senegal) to a wealthy Muslim family before being enslaved in the United States and eventually North Carolina. Said [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Sanders, Bunny: Serpents and Doves
by Cecelski, David S. Elmer Vanray "E.V." Wilkins was a legendary educator and black political leader in Roper, in Washington County. I recently visited with his daughter, Bunny Sanders, to learn more about his life and [...] (from Listening to History, News and Observer.)
Sanders, Daniel Jackson
by Massey, R. A., Jr. Daniel Jackson Sanders, Presbyterian clergyman, editor, and educator, one of five children of William and Laura Sanders. Sanders was born enslaved near Winnsboro, S.C. His mother was enslaved by the [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
School Desegregation
by Currie, Jefferson. School Desegregation "With Deliberate Speed: North Carolina and School Desegregation" by Jefferson Currie II Reprinted with permission from the Tar Heel Junior Historian. Fall 2004. Tar Heel [...] (from Tar Heel Junior Historian, NC Museum of History.)
Schools for Freed Peoples, 1860s
by Sandifer, Alex, Renfer, Berry Dishong. Schools for freed peoples By Alex Sandifer and Berry Dishong Renfer Reprinted with permission from the Tar Heel Junior Historian, Fall 2003. Tar Heel Junior Historian Association, NC Museum of [...] (from Tar Heel Junior Historian, NC Museum of History.)
Scruggs, Lawson Andrew
by Murray, Elizabeth D. R. Scruggs, Lawson Andrew by Elizabeth Reid Murray, 1994 Related Entries: African American; Civil Rights; Historically Black Colleges 15 Jan. 1857–1914 Lawson Andrew Scruggs, physician, [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Seabrook, James Ward
by Burns, Augustus M., III. Seabrook, James Ward by A. M. Burns III, 1994 Related Entries: Historically Black Colleges; Civil Rights 6 Nov. 1886–26 Mar. 1974 James Ward Seabrook, educator, college president, leader [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Sebastian, Martha Josephine Oxford
by . Sebastian, Martha Josephine Oxford (May 6, 1896 - April 24, 1948)  By Anthony Arcangeli, 2018F.D. Bluford Library, North Carolina Agricultural & Technical State [...] (from NC Office of Archives and History.)
Sebastian, Simon Powell
by Stewart, James, Love, Edward Lee. Dr. S. P. Sebastian was a renowned physician, surgeon, and the co-founder of two historic African-American hospitals in Greensboro, North Carolina. For 20 years he served as the college physician at [...] (from NCpedia K-8 Collection.)
Segregation
by Hatley Wadelington, Flora. Segregation in the 1920s "Assigned Places" by Flora Hatley Wadelington Reprinted with permission from the Tar Heel Junior Historian. Spring 2004. Tar Heel Junior Historian Association, NC [...] (from Tar Heel Junior Historian, NC Museum of History.)
Settlement of the Coastal Plain
by Watson, Alan D. Settlement of the Coastal Plain, 1650-1775 by Alan D. Watson Reprinted with permission from the Tar Heel Junior Historian. Spring 1995. Tar Heel Junior Historian Association, NC Museum of [...] (from Tar Heel Junior Historian, NC Museum of History.)
Sgt. Gilbert "Hashmark" Johnson
by . Sgt. Gilbert "Hashmark" JohnsonSgt. Gilbert H. "Hashmark" Johnson, a veteran of service in both the Army and Navy, glares at the boots in his recruit platoon. He became a Marine in [...] (from Government & Heritage Library, State Library of North Carolina.)
Shaw University
by Wadelington, Charles W. Shaw University by Charles W. Wadelington, 2006 See also: Private Education; Private Higher Education; Historically Black Colleges and Universities for K-8 Students Shaw University, [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Shaw, Herbert Bell
by Carroll, Grady L. E., Sr. Herbert Bell Shaw, bishop of the African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church, was born in Wilmington, the son of John Henry and Lummie Virginia Hodges Shaw. He was named for the Reverend Herbert Bell, [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Shaw, Judith: Railroad Street
by Cecelski, David S. Judith Shaw was born and raised in New York City, but every summer of her childhood she visited her father's hometown of La Grange, 75 miles east of Raleigh. She loved the little town that calls [...] (from Listening to History, News and Observer.)
Sheila Florence Oral History Excerpt
by . Sheila Florence Oral History ExcerptSheila Florence was one of the first students to desegregate schools in Chapel Hill, North Carolina. When she began attending Chapel Hill Junior High School in [...] (from University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Libraries.)
Shepard, James Edward
by Eagles, Charles W. James Edward Shepard, college president, was the oldest of twelve children born in Raleigh to the Reverend Augustus and Hattie Whitted Shepard. He attended the public schools of Raleigh before [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Sheridan, Louis
by Powell, William S. Louis Sheridan, farmer, free black merchant, and Liberian official, was probably the Louis Sheridan mentioned in the 1800 will of Joseph R. Gautier (d. 15 May 1807), Elizabethtown merchant, as the [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Sidney Poitier, Harry Belafonte, and Charlton Heston at the 1963 March on Washington
by . Sidney Poitier, Harry Belafonte, and Charlton Heston at the 1963 March on Washington Sidney Poitier, Harry Belafonte, and Charlton Heston stand at the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C., at the [...] (from Government & Heritage Library, State Library of North Carolina.)
Simkins v. Cone
by Thomas, Karen Kruse. In 1962 dentist George Simkins, physician Alvin Blount, and other African American physicians and their patients sued Moses H. Cone Memorial Hospital and Wesley Long Community Hospital in Greensboro, [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Simone, Nina
by Franke, Matthew. The artist who would come to be known across the world as Nina Simone was born Eunice Kathleen Waymon on February 21, 1933, in Tryon, North Carolina in Polk County. She was the sixth of eight [...] (from NCpedia.)
Slade, James: People That Do Right
by Cecelski, David S. Dr. James Slade is the sort of impossibly old-fashioned doctor who still makes house calls and has never thought about joining an HMO. For 35 years he has been practicing pediatrics and general [...] (from Listening to History, News and Observer.)
Slater Fund
by Williams, Wiley J. Slater Fund by Wiley J. Williams, 2006 See also: Jeanes Fund. In 1882 John Fox Slater, a textile manufacturer and philanthropist from Norwich, Conn., established a $1 million fund [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Slave auction at Richmond, Virginia
by . Slave auction at Richmond, VirginiaWood engraving shows an African American woman being auctioned off in front of crowd of [...] (from Government & Heritage Library, State Library of North Carolina.)
Slave Clandestine Economy
by Schweninger, Loren. Slave Clandestine Economy by Loren Schweninger, 2006 Slave clandestine economy refers to a variety of private agricultural and business endeavors undertaken by some North Carolina slaves. [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Slave Codes
by Lamm, Alan K. The increasing number of black slaves in colonial America created suspicion and fear among the general population and led to a backlash of white reaction known as slave codes. Virginia was the first [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Slave Names
by Inscoe, John C. Slave Names by John C. Inscoe, 2006; Revised May 2022 by NC Government & Heritage [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Slave Patrols
by Salemson, Daniel J. North Carolina, unlike other southern states and perhaps due to the lack of major slave rebellions, was slow to establish formal slave patrols. South Carolina first addressed the issue in 1704, [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Slave Rebellions
by Parramore, Thomas C., Nash, Steven E. Slave Rebellions by Steven E. Nash and Thomas C. Parramore, 2006 See also: Negro Head Road; Violence, Group Slave rebellions were a recurring fear in North Carolina throughout much [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Slavery
by Crow, Jeffrey J., Dees-Killette, Amelia, Huff, Diane. Slavery by Jeffrey J. Crow, 2006 Additional research provided by Amelia Dees-Killette and Diane Huff. See also: Ad Valorem Taxation of Slaves; Colonization Societies; Manumission [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Slaves' Midsummer Holiday
by Powell, William S. The Slaves' Midsummer Holiday, when slave laborers were permitted a few days off, occurred after crops were laid by and before harvesting began. On 28 Aug. 1862 Catherine Ann Devereux Edmondston of [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Smith, Ezekiel Ezra
by Reidinger, Martin. Smith, Ezekiel Ezra by Martin Reidinger, 1994 23 May 1852–6 Dec. 1933 Ezekiel Ezra Smith, educator and diplomat, the son of free blacks Alexander and Caroline Smith, was born in [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Smith, Isaac Hughes
by Massengill, Stephen E. Isaac Hughes Smith, black legislator, realtor, and philanthropist, was born in the Craven County area, the son of Thomas and Harriet Smith, both natives of North Carolina. Little is known about his [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Smith, Owen Lun West
by Johnston, Hugh B., Jr., Eagles, Brenda M. Owen Lun West Smith, U.S. minister to Liberia and Methodist leader, was born in Giddensville, Sampson County, the son of Ollen and Maria Hicks Smith, both of African descent. As a youth he served as [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Some of the Founders of Mechanics & Farmers Bank
by . Some of the Founders of Mechanics & Farmers Bank Portrait of some of the Founders of Mechanics & Farmers Bank, Durham, NC. From the Black History Exhibit, Durham County Centennial, [...] (from Government & Heritage Library, State Library of North Carolina.)
Soul City
by Gavins, Raymond. Soul City by Raymond Gavins, 2006 Soul City, a small town located one mile off U.S. 1 between Warrenton and Manson in Warren County, is a symbol of black economic aspiration fueled by the [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Southern Christian Leadership Conference
by Gavins, Raymond. Southern Christian Leadership Conference by Raymond Gavins, 2006 The Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), established in 1957 in Atlanta and headed by Martin Luther King Jr. [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Spaulding, Asa Timothy
by Powell, William S. Asa Timothy Spaulding, insurance company executive, was born in Columbus County, the son of Armstead and Annie Belle Lowery Spaulding. He attended the National Training School of Howard University, [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Spaulding, Charles Clinton
by Weare, Walter B. Charles Clinton Spaulding, black businessman and community leader, was born in Columbus County to parents descended from a long-standing community of free Negro landholders in the area. A family oral [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Spaulding, Charles Clinton
by Stocker, Emmanuel. Spaulding, Charles Clinton By Emmanuel Stocker, North Carolina State University, 2013 August 1, 1874- August 1, [...] (from NCpedia.)
Stanly, John Carruthers
by Cummings, Lindy. John Carruthers Stanly was a prominent entrepreneur and land-owning free Black in New Bern in the early 19th century. He was the son of an unnamed enslaved woman and white merchant John Wright [...] (from NC Office of Archives and History.)
State v. John Mann
by Brinkley, Martin H. State v. John Mann by Martin H. Brinkley, 2006 State v. John Mann, an 1829 North Carolina Supreme Court decision, is probably the most notorious judicial opinion on the relationship [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
State v. Manuel
by Stoesen, Alexander R. State v. Manuel by Alexander R. Stoesen, 2006 State v. Manuel, argued before the North Carolina Supreme Court in 1838, was the first case to decide that a free black person was a citizen of [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
State v. Negro Will
by Brinkley, Martin H. State v. Negro Will by Martin H. Brinkley, 2006 See also: State v. John Mann. State v. Negro Will, a celebrated 1834 North Carolina Supreme Court decision standing for the general [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Steadman, Connie Marie Badgett
by Agan, Kelly. Connie Marie Badgett Steadman grew up in Locust Hill Township in Caswell County, North Carolina. Her father, Cortelyou Badgett, was a gospel singer and choir director, and she grew up singing gospel [...] (from Government & Heritage Library, State Library of North Carolina.)
Step Dancing
by Moore, Cecelia. Step Dancing by Cecelia Moore, 2006; Revised February 2022 Step dancing, or "soulstepping," is a form of competitive dance exhibition developed by African American fraternities and [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Stith, Don: The Smoke Eaters of Warrenton
by Cecelski, David S. I interviewed Don Stith at the old firehouse in Warrenton, about 60 miles northeast of Raleigh. He is straight talking, brash, always moving. Above all, he is dedicated to volunteer firefighting -- [...] (from Listening to History, News and Observer.)
Strayhorn, William (Billy) Thomas
by Sanford, Mary Pettis. William Thomas Strayhorn, African American jazz musician, came from families (Strayhorns, Youngs, and Craigs) established in Hillsborough for generations; there seems to be some evidence of West [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
by Hill, Michael. Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee by Michael Hill, 2006 See also: Civil Rights Movement; Civil Rights in North Carolina; Civil Rights Sit-Ins; Ella Baker, NCpedia Biography; Ella [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Sugg, Herman Bryan (H.B.)
by Hill, Steven. H.B. Sugg’s parents, Bryant Sugg and Penny Briggs Sugg, were both born enslaved. Bryant Sugg told of his life as a slave and how he had fled his master’s plantation in Greene County to connect with [...] (from Government & Heritage Library, State Library of North Carolina.)
Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education
by Brabham, Robin. Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education by Robin Brabham, 2006 See also: Pupil Assignment Act. Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education, argued before the U.S. Supreme [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Taylor, Robert Robinson
by Powell, William S. Robert Robinson Taylor, architect, was born in Wilmington, the son of Henry, a wealthy mulatto house carpenter, and Emilie Taylor, also mulatto. His father later was described as an able black [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Terrell, Saunders
by Bastin, Bruce. Terrell, Saunders (Sonny Terry) by Bruce Bastin, 1994 Related Entries: African American; Music; Allen Fulton; Gary Davis 24 Oct. 1911–11 Mar. 1986 Saunders (Sonny Terry) Terrell, blind [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
The Freedmen's Colony on Roanoke Island
by . Roanoke Island was the setting for an historic experiment during the Civil War. Following the island’s occupation by Union forces in 1862, it became a haven for African-American families from [...] (from National Park Service.)
The Green Book
by Agan, Kelly, Scott, Jordan. The Green Book, also known as The Negro Motorist Green Book, later known as The Negro Traveler’s Green Book in 1952, and finally the Travelers’ Green Book in 1960, was a guide for black travelers [...] (from Government & Heritage Library, State Library of North Carolina.)
The Lightner Arcade and Hotel, Raleigh
by Agan, Kelly, Scott, Jordan. The early 1930s was the time of the Great Depression, segregation, big bands, and swing. During that decade, Raleigh's East Hargett Street was the economic and social hub for the area's African [...] (from Government & Heritage Library, State Library of North Carolina.)
The Quest for Progress: Transformation of North Carolina 1870-1920
by Parramore, Thomas C., Watson, Harry L., Nathans, Sydney, Anderson, Jean B., Clayton, Thomas H., Fenn, Elizabeth A., Wood, Peter H. By Elizabeth A. Fenn, Peter H. Wood, Harry L. Watson, Thomas H. Clayton, Sydney Nathans, Thomas C. Parramore, and Jean B. Anderson; Maps by Mark Anderson Moore. Edited by Joe A. Mobley. [...] (from The Way We Lived in North Carolina, NC Office of Archives and History and UNC Press.)
The rag man
by . The "rag man" in a Jonkonnu reenactment at Bellamy Mansion in Wilmington, North Carolina. The rag man is an important part of Jonkonnu. He symbolizes the ancestors. Each fluttering rag is an ancestor [...] (from Government & Heritage Library, State Library of North Carolina.)
Thomas Day: Fine-Crafted Freedom
by Davis, Sarajanee. Day, Thomas  Fine-Crafted Freedom By Sarajanee Davis, N.C. Government & Heritage Library, 2019 From the NCpedia K-8 Collection Ca. 1801-1861 Do you have a favorite piece of [...] (from NCpedia K-8 Collection.)
Thorpe, Earlie Endris
by Powell, William S. Thorpe, Earlie Endris by William S. Powell, 1994 Related Entries: Historically Black Universities and Colleges; Civil Rights; African American 9 Nov. 1924–30 Jan. 1989 Earlie [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Tomlinson, Mel A.
by Agan, Kelly, Miles, Jeff. Born in Raleigh on January 3 1954, Tomlinson became interested in dance after participating in gymnastics in high school. He grew up in the public housing projects of Chavis Heights in Raleigh, [...] (from North Carolina Department of Natural and Cultural Resources.)
Tomlinson, Mel A.: Rubber-Band Man
by Cecelski, David S. Mel A. Tomlinson was one of America's most brilliant dancers in the 1970s and '80s. Raised in Raleigh's Chavis Heights public housing project, he became a star in Agnes de Mille's Heritage Theater, [...] (from Listening to History, News and Observer.)
Turner, Benjamin Sterling
by Stewart, Alva W. Turner, Benjamin Sterling by Alva W. Stewart, 1994; Revised by Alyssa Putt, NC Government and Heritage Library, August 2022.  Related Entries: African American; Reconstruction; [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Two Black Classes of Antebellum NC
by Nathans, Sydney. The Two Black Classes of Antebellum North Carolina by Sydney Nathans Reprinted with permission from the Tar Heel Junior Historian, Fall 1996. Revised by NC Government & Heritage Library, [...] (from Tar Heel Junior Historian, NC Museum of History.)
Two World Wars
by Belton, Tom. Today North Carolina is a major center for aviation-related military bases. These include the Coast Guard station at Elizabeth City; the Marine Corps Air Station at Cherry Point, which provides [...] (from Tar Heel Junior Historian, NC Museum of History.)
United States Colored Troops: Fighting for Freedom
by Haley, John H. United States Colored Troops: Fighting for Freedom By John H. Haley, PhD Reprinted with permission from the Tar Heel Junior Historian 50:2 (spring 2011)   An elaborate ceremony took [...] (from Tar Heel Junior Historian, NC Museum of History.)
United Tobacco Workers Local 22: Civil Rights and Tobacco Unionism
by Hill, Michael. The 1940s were a fertile period for labor organizing in the tobacco industry, inspiring a movement for workplace democracy that fed directly into the nascent civil rights movement. African Americans [...] (from Research Branch, NC Office of Archives and History.)
Vann, Robert Lee
by Eagles, Charles W. Robert Lee Vann, newspaper editor, was born in Ahoskie to Lucy Peoples, who named him for his great-grandfather, Robert Lee, and for her first employer, Albert Vann. His father is unknown. At age six [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Violence, Group
by Mazzocchi, Jay, O'Brien, Gail Williams. Violence, Group by Gail Williams O'Brien and Jay Mazzocchi, 2006 See also:"Death to the Klan" March; Gastonia Strike; Ku Klux Klan; Lowry Band; Lynching; Red Shirts; Regulator Movement; [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Walden, Islay
by Jackson, Blyden. Islay Walden, black poet and Congregational minister, was born in Randolph County, the son of a woman named Ruth who was enslaved by James Gardner and William D. Walden, a free black man. At [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Walker, David
by Inscoe, John C. David Walker, black author of an incendiary antislavery pamphlet, was born in Wilmington to a free mother and a slave father who died before his birth. Despite his free status inherited from his [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Walls, William Jacob
by Carroll, Grady L. E., Sr. Walls, William Jacob by Grady L. E. Carroll, 1994 Related Entries: African American 8 May 1885–23 Apr. 1975 William Jacob Walls, Methodist clergyman, editor, and author, was born at [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Wheeler Airlines (from Tar Heel Junior Historian)
by Wadelington, Charles W. In North Carolina, aviation experienced important developments in the late 1920s. In 1928 the state’s first airmail flight landed at Lindley Field in Greensboro. By 1929 Raleigh introduced commercial [...] (from Tar Heel Junior Historian, NC Museum of History.)
Wheeler, John Hervey
by Weare, Walter B. John Harvey Wheeler, black businessman and civil rights leader, was born in Kittrell on the campus of Kittrell College, an African Methodist Episcopal church school of which his father was president. [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
White, George Henry
by Schenck, William Z. White, George Henry by William Z. Schenck, 1994 Related Entries: Legislative Branch; African Americans See also: George Henry White for K-8 students 18 Dec. 1852–28 Dec. [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
White, George Henry
by Thompson, Taylor. Have you ever been in a situation where people around you were being treated unfairly?  Did you want to do something about it? George Henry White found himself in the same situation. He wanted [...] (from NCpedia K-8 Collection.)
Whitney, Rene: So Many Blessings
by Cecelski, David S. I visited Rene Whitney at her home in Delta City, 20 miles northeast of little Washington. At 85 years old, she remembers when the community was not much more than a dusty, windswept field workers' [...] (from Listening to History, News and Observer.)
Wiggins, Ella May
by Frederickson, Mary E. Ella May Wiggins, textile worker, balladier, and union organizer, was born in the mountains of Cherokee County, near Bryson City, the daughter of James and Elizabeth Maples May. Her father, a [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
William McBrayer
by Wegner, Ansley Herring. William McBrayer by Ansley Wegner Research Branch, NC Office of Archives and History, [...] (from Research Branch, NC Office of Archives and History.)
Williams, John Taylor
by Powell, William S. John Taylor Williams, educator, physician, and businessman, was born in the northern part of Cumberland County, the son of free black parents, Peter Williams, a successful lumberman, and Flora Ann [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Williams, Mabel: Standing Up To The Klan
by Cecelski, David S. I interviewed Mabel Williams two years after her legendary husband's death. They both grew up in Monroe at a time when lynchings were common and many things that we take for granted were marked [...] (from Listening to History, News and Observer.)
Williams, Robert Franklin
by Agan, Kelly, Scott, Jordan. Williams, Robert Franklin by Jordan Scott and Kelly Agan, Government & Heritage Library, 2019. 26 Feb. 1925-15 Oct. 1996 Robert F. Williams was an American militant civil rights leader [...] (from Government & Heritage Library, State Library of North Carolina.)
Williams, Willis: Life And Death At Devils Gut
by Cecelski, David S. In September of 1957, a Martin County teenager named Willis Williams had the courage to tell the truth about the death of an African-American college student named Joe Cross. His story shocked North [...] (from Listening to History, News and Observer.)
Williams-King, Alethea: The Widow's Mite
by Cecelski, David S. When Alethea Williams-King moved to Blounts Creek, she was impressed how deeply her neighbors cared for an old plank building that used to be the community school. It was the Ware Creek Rosenwald [...] (from Listening to History, News and Observer.)
Wilmington Coup
by Umfleet, LeRae. The Wilmington Coup of 1898 was not an act of spontaneous violence. The events of November 10, 1898, were the result of a long-range campaign strategy by Democratic Party leaders to regain political [...] (from NC Office of Archives and History.)
Wilmington Ten
by Stinson, Craig M. On 6 Feb. 1971, after weeks of racial tension over integration of the public school system in Wilmington, a white-owned grocery store in a black neighborhood was firebombed. A year later Ben Chavis, [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Wilmington Ten (from UNC-CH)
by Graham, Nicholas. In early February, 1971, downtown Wilmington, N.C. was a war zone. Shots rang through the streets, traffic was blocked, and citizens were barricaded in a church. Although it took only a couple of [...] (from University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Libraries.)
Wimberly, Dred
by Macfie, John. Dred Wimberly, member of the General Assembly, was born at Walnut Plantation near Tarboro, where he was raised and worked in the fields of James S. Battle prior to the Civil War. In 1865 Kemp Plummer [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Winston-Salem Bible College
by Losse, Helen. Winston-Salem Bible College, formerly the Christian Institute, began in 1945 in a storefront building on Wheeler Street in Winston-Salem. After a shaky beginning during which the college was forced [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Winston-Salem State University
by Wadelington, Charles W. Winston-Salem State University was founded in Winston-Salem as the Slater Industrial Academy, a school for African Americans, on 28 Sept. 1892. Housed in a one-room frame structure, the school had 25 [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Witherspoon, August McIver
by Hill, Steven. Witherspoon, August McIver By Steven A. Hill. Copyright 2019. Published with permission. For personal educational use and not for further distribution. 11 Sept. 1930-6 June 1994 Augustus [...] (from NCpedia K-8 Collection.)
Women of Somerset Place
by Sykes, John. Women of Somerset Place by John Sykes Reprinted with permission from the Tar Heel Junior Historian, Spring 1994. Tar Heel Junior Historian Association, NC Museum of History Somerset Place, [...] (from Tar Heel Junior Historian, NC Museum of History.)
Woodward, Sara Griffith Stanley
by Powell, William S. Woodward, Sara Griffith Stanley by William S. Powell, 1994 Related Entries: African American 1836–1918 Sara Griffith Stanley Woodward, anti-slavery activist and teacher and one of the [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Work, Monroe Nathan
by Johnson, Elmer D. Monroe Nathan Work, bibliographer and historian, was born in Iredell County, the son of Alexander and Eliza Hobbs Work, both slaves until the end of the Civil War. He was the youngest of eleven [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Wray, John Dudley
by Cox, Netta S. John Dudley Wray was an educator, agriculturalist, and North Carolina's first African-American Farm Makers’ Club (now 4-H club) Agent. He was born in Roxboro, North Carolina on December 10, 1885 [...] (from NC Office of Archives and History.)
Wright, Marion Allen
by Copeland, J. Isaac. Wright, Marion Allen by J. Isaac Copeland, 1996; Additional research provided by Kelly Agan; Revised December 2021 18 Jan. 1894–14 Feb. 1983 Marion Allen Wright, attorney, citizen of the two [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Yergan, Max
by Boykin, James H. Max Yergan, world religious leader, educator, reformer, and consultant on African affairs, was born in Raleigh, the son of Lizzie Yergan and the grandson of Fred Yergan, a slave and apprentice [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Young Men's Institute
by Gavins, Raymond. Young Men's Institute by Raymond Gavins, 2006 The Young Men's Institute in Asheville, backed by businessman and philanthropist George W. Vanderbilt, opened in 1893 as a community center [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Young, Allen Lawrence
by Murray, Elizabeth D. R. Allen Lawrence Young, community leader, educator, and founder of the Wake Forest Normal and Industrial School for Negroes (1905–57), was born in northern Wake County, the eldest of ten children of [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Young, James Hunter
by Gatewood, Willard B., Jr. James Hunter Young, politician, editor, businessman, and racial spokesman, was born near Henderson. His mother was enslaved by Captain Demetrius Ellis Young, and his father was "a prominent white man [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
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