American Indians

American Indians
American Indian Churches in Eastern NC
by Oakley, Christopher Arris. American Indian Churches in Eastern NC Originally published as "Communities of Faith: American Indian Churches in Eastern North Carolina" by Dr. Christopher Arris Oakley Reprinted with [...] (from Tar Heel Junior Historian, NC Museum of History.)
American Indian Education
by Currie, Jefferson. In 1971 the State of North Carolina proposed tearing down the Old Main building at Pembroke State University (now the University of North Carolina at Pembroke). Old Main, built in the 1920s, is the [...] (from Tar Heel Junior Historian, NC Museum of History.)
American Indian Food
by Samford, Dr. Patricia M. American Indian Food Originally published as "Discovering What Native North Carolinians Ate" By Dr. Patricia M. Samford Reprinted with permission from Tar Heel Junior Historian, Spring [...] (from Tar Heel Junior Historian, NC Museum of History.)
American Indian Storytelling
by Currie, Jefferson. "Shhhhhhhh!" Legend has it that Coharie Indian mothers would make that sound when outsiders would approach their village, hoping to quiet their children until the strangers passed. The Coharie were [...] (from Tar Heel Junior Historian, NC Museum of History.)
American Indian Tribes in North Carolina
by Richardson, Gregory A. North Carolina has the largest American Indian population east of the Mississippi River and the eighth-largest Indian population in the United States. As noted by the 2000 U.S. Census, 99,551 [...] (from Tar Heel Junior Historian, NC Museum of History.)
American Indians - Part 1: Introduction
by DiNome, William G., Coe, Joffre L., Green, Michael D., Towles, Louis P., Weidman, Rich. Part i: Introduction; Part ii: American Indians before European contact; Part iii: Indian tribes from European contact to the era of removal; Part iv: The struggle for Indian sovereignty and cultural [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
American Indians - Part 2: Before European contact
by DiNome, William G. Part i: Introduction; Part ii: American Indians before European contact; Part iii: Indian tribes from European contact to the era of removal; Part iv: The struggle for Indian sovereignty and cultural [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
American Indians - Part 3: European contact to the era of removal
by DiNome, William G. Part i: Introduction; Part ii: American Indians before European contact; Part iii: Indian tribes from European contact to the era of removal; Part iv: The struggle for Indian sovereignty and cultural [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
American Indians - Part 4: Sovereignty and cultural identity
by DiNome, William G. Part i: Introduction; Part ii: American Indians before European contact; Part iii: Indian tribes from European contact to the era of removal; Part iv: The struggle for Indian sovereignty and cultural [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
American Indians - Part 5: Today
by DiNome, William G. Part i: Introduction; Part ii: American Indians before European contact; Part iii: Indian tribes from European contact to the era of removal; Part iv: The struggle for Indian sovereignty and cultural [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
American Indians - Part 6: References
by DiNome, William G. Part i: Introduction; Part ii: American Indians before European contact; Part iii: Indian tribes from European contact to the era of removal; Part iv: The struggle for Indian sovereignty and cultural [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
American Indians at European Contact
by Kincheloe, John W., III. European explorers came to the "New World" of North America in the 1500s. Before that time, the continent was an unknown place to them. These adventurers saw it as an entirely new land, with animals [...] (from Tar Heel Junior Historian, NC Museum of History.)
American Indians in Antebellum NC
by Nathans, Sydney. American Indians in Antebellum NC Originally published as "A Class All Their Own: American Indians in Antebellum North Carolina" by Sydney Nathans Reprinted with permission from the Tar Heel [...] (from Tar Heel Junior Historian, NC Museum of History.)
American Indians in WWII
by La Vere, David. North Carolina’s American Indians in World War II by Dr. David La Vere/Our State Books Reprinted with permission from the Tar Heel Junior Historian. Fall 2005. Tar Heel Junior Historian [...] (from Tar Heel Junior Historian, NC Museum of History.)
Archaeology of Early NC
by Daniel, I. Randolph, Jr. Most North Carolina citizens are familiar with the early English settlement of our state, as marked by the fabled “Lost Colony” in the late 1500s. The story is known because firsthand accounts of the [...] (from Tar Heel Junior Historian, NC Museum of History.)
Archaeology Part 1: Archaeological Research in the Coastal Plain
by Freeman, Joan E., Davis, R. P. Stephen, Jr., Lawrence, Richard W. Archaeology by Joan E. Freeman and R. P. Stephen Davis Jr., 2006. Additional research provided by Richard W. Lawrence. See also: American Indians; Archaeology of Early NC; Cherokee [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Archaeology Part 2: Discoveries of the North Carolina Piedmont
by Freeman, Joan E., Davis, R. P. Stephen, Jr., Lawrence, Richard W. Archaeology by Joan E. Freeman and R. P. Stephen Davis Jr., 2006. Additional research provided by Richard W. Lawrence. Part 1: Archaeological Research in the Coastal Plain; Part 2: [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Archaeology Part 4: Underwater Archaeology
by Freeman, Joan E., Davis, R. P. Stephen, Jr., Lawrence, Richard W. Archaeology by Joan E. Freeman and R. P. Stephen Davis Jr., 2006. Additional research provided by Richard W. Lawrence. Part 1: Archaeological Research in the Coastal Plain; Part 2: [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Art of John White
by Mewborn, Suzanne. The Art of John White By Suzanne Mewborn Reprinted with permission from the Tar Heel Junior Historian, Fall 2007. Tar Heel Junior Historian Association, NC Museum of History If you travel [...] (from Tar Heel Junior Historian, NC Museum of History.)
Attakullakulla
by Corkran, D. H. Attakullakulla, a Cherokee warrior and statesman—known to the English as The Little Carpenter, because his name meant "wood leaning up" and therefore suggested house-building—became the most [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Augusta Conference
by Williams, Wiley J. In response to orders from King George III, the leaders of Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia met with representatives of the southern Indians (Creek, Cherokee, Choctaw, Chickasaw, [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Basket Making
by Cross, Dennis W. Basket making has likely been a part of North Carolina's history as long as human beings have inhabited the region. Although the fragility of basket materials means that few related artifacts still [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Bear River Indians
by Wetmore, Ruth Y. Bear River Indians, an Algonquian tribe also known as the Bay River Indians, lived between the Pamlico and Neuse Rivers in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries. They were neighbors of [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Blunt (or Blount), Tom
by Johnson, F. Roy. Tom Blunt (or Blount), a head chief and king of the North Carolina Tuscarora Indians, of obscure parentage, lived in the Upper Towns. During his time these numbered seven and formed one of three [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Burial Customs
by DiNome, William G. Burial Customs by William G. DiNome, 2006 See also: Funerals; Town Creek Indian Mound. The nature of the specific burial customs that may have existed among the people inhabiting the [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Cameron, Alexander
by III, James H. O'Donnell. Alexander Cameron, British Indian agent, was born in Scotland during the early eighteenth century and emigrated to the Southern colonies with a number of his countrymen in the 1730s and 1740s. It is [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Canoes
by Stick, David. Canoes have provided a primary form of transportation on the sounds, rivers, and bays of coastal North Carolina for centuries. In the 1580s the explorers and colonists sent to Roanoke Island by Sir [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Cape Fear Indians
by DiNome, William G. Cape Fear Indians were likely associated with North Carolina's eastern Siouan tribes, possibly the Waccamaw, but it is not clear whether they were independent or part of some other tribe. The native [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Carolina Indian Voice
by Mammen, Edwin H. Carolina Indian Voice, a weekly newspaper published in Pembroke, was established on 18 Jan. 1973. It serves the interests of the Lumbee Indians in Robeson County, who make up approximately one-third [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Catawba Indians
by Moore, David G. Catawba Indians are often referred to as the Catawba Nation, a term that describes an eighteenth-century amalgamation of different peoples that included the Catawba Indians. Historically, the Indians [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Cherokee Botanical Garden
by Williams, Wiley J. The Cherokee Botanical Garden, first opened to the public in May 1953, adjoins Oconaluftee Indian Village on the Cherokee Indian Reservation (Qualla Boundary) in western North Carolina. The garden is [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Cherokee Indians - Part 1: Overview
by Anderson, William L., Wetmore, Ruth Y., Bell, John L. Part i: Overview; Part ii: Cherokee origins and first European contact; Part iii: Disease, destruction, and the loss of Cherokee land; Part iv: Revolutionary War, Cherokee defeat and additional land [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Cherokee Indians - Part 2: Cherokee origins and first European contact
by Anderson, William L., Wetmore, Ruth Y. Part i:Overview; Part ii: Cherokee origins and first European contact; Part iii: Disease, destruction, and the loss of Cherokee land; Part iv: Revolutionary War, Cherokee defeat and additional land [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Cherokee Indians - Part 3: Disease, destruction, and the loss of Cherokee land
by Anderson, William L., Wetmore, Ruth Y. Part i: Overview; Part ii: Cherokee origins and first European contact; Part iii: Disease, destruction, and the loss of Cherokee land; Part iv: Revolutionary War, Cherokee defeat and additional land [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Cherokee Indians - Part 4: Revolutionary War, Cherokee defeat and additional land cessions
by Anderson, William L., Wetmore, Ruth Y. Part i: Overview; Part ii: Cherokee origins and first European contact; Part iii: Disease, destruction, and the loss of Cherokee land; Part iv: Revolutionary War, Cherokee defeat and additional land [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Cherokee Indians - Part 5: Trail of Tears and the creation of the Eastern Band of Cherokees
by Anderson, William L., Wetmore, Ruth Y. Part i: Overview; Part ii: Cherokee origins and first European contact; Part iii: Disease, destruction, and the loss of Cherokee land; Part iv: Revolutionary War, Cherokee defeat and additional land [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Cherokee Indians - Part 6: Federal recognition and the fight for Cherokee rights
by Anderson, William L., Wetmore, Ruth Y. Part i: Overview; Part ii: Cherokee origins and first European contact; Part iii: Disease, destruction, and the loss of Cherokee land; Part iv: Revolutionary War, Cherokee defeat and additional land [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Cherokee Indians - Part 7: Modern-day Cherokee life and culture
by Anderson, William L., Wetmore, Ruth Y. Part i: Overview; Part ii: Cherokee origins and first European contact; Part iii: Disease, destruction, and the loss of Cherokee land; Part iv: Revolutionary War, Cherokee defeat and additional land [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Cherokee Indians - Part 8: References and additional resources
by Anderson, William L., Wetmore, Ruth Y. Part i: Overview; Part ii: Cherokee origins and first European contact; Part iii: Disease, destruction, and the loss of Cherokee land; Part iv: Revolutionary War, Cherokee defeat and additional land [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Cherokee language
by Frey, Ben. Cherokee is very different from European lanugages. Many European languages—French, Spanish, and Italian, for example—relate in some way to each other, Cherokee has no basic relationship to these [...] (from Tar Heel Junior Historian, NC Museum of History.)
Coharie Indians
by Wegner, Ansley Herring. The Coharie, like most Indians, depended largely on oral traditions for remembering and passing along their culture and history.  The first recorded meeting of the tribe was in 1910 and at that [...] (from Research Branch, NC Office of Archives and History.)
Coharie Indians
by Wegner, Ansley Herring. The Coharie, like most Indians, depended largely on oral traditions for remembering and passing along their culture and history.  The first recorded meeting of the tribe was in 1910 and at that [...] (from Research Branch, NC Office of Archives and History.)
Commission of Indian Affairs
by Williams, Wiley J. The North Carolina Commission of Indian Affairs was created by the 1971 General Assembly as a response to requests of concerned Indian citizens. Among the important concerns of the commission were [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Contemporary powwows
by Richardson, Marvin. Imagine a series of circles or rings, filled with action—sights, colors, tastes, smells, and sounds—all connected to and celebrating the American Indian heritage of the event’s participants. This [...] (from Tar Heel Junior Historian, NC Museum of History.)
Coree Indians
by Green, Michael D. Coree Indians, when first encountered by Europeans arriving in what is now North Carolina, were living south of the Neuse River along the Atlantic Coast. Like other Indians of the Coastal Plain, the [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
CROATOAN
by Evans, Phillip W. CROATOAN was the sole complete word found on Roanoke Island by John White on 18 Aug. 1590 in his search for the English colonists, including his granddaughter Virginia Dare, whom he had left there [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Croatoan Indians
by Evans, Phillip W. The Croatoan Indians were a tribal group of Carolina Algonquians who probably inhabited both present-day Hatteras and Ocracoke Islands at the time of the arrival of the English explorers and [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Crowell, John
by Copeland, J. Isaac. John Crowell, Indian agent, territorial delegate, and congressman, was born in Halifax County. His father, Edward, had left New Jersey to settle in North Carolina, where he married a Miss Rabun, an [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Dasemunkepeuc
by Wegner, Ansley Herring. Dasemunkepeuc was an Algonquian village on the mainland shore of Roanoke Sound, near modern-day Mann’s Harbor. It was the principal home of Wingina, a weroance (a regional leader) well-known to [...] (from Research Branch, NC Office of Archives and History.)
Deep Creek, Battle of
by Anderson, William L. the battle of deep creek, also called the battle of quallatown, was a civil war engagement that occurred on 2 feb. 1864. union troops from the 14th illinois cavalry under maj. francis m. davidson [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Double Voting
by Barton, Bruce. Double Voting: A Personal Account "'Double Voting' in Robeson County: A Reminder of an Unequal Past" by Bruce Barton Reprinted with permission from the Tar Heel Junior Historian. Fall [...] (from Tar Heel Junior Historian, NC Museum of History.)
English Dialects
by Porter, Matthew C. The English language in North Carolina has been growing and evolving since 1584, when the first English explorers to visit North America came to the Outer Banks, making it the first place in the New [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Eno Indians
by Anderson, Jean B. The Eno Indians were likely one of the loosely related tribes of Siouan-speaking Native Americans living in the Piedmont of what is now North Carolina at the time of European exploration. Little is [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Epps, Lois: Zan Epps' Daughter
by Cecelski, David S. I visited Lois Epps Jones in High Plains, an Indian community north of Roxboro, in Person County. Her great-grandfather found refuge in High Plains during the Cherokee Removal. Now she is one of the [...] (from Listening to History, News and Observer.)
Etchoe, Battle of
by Anderson, William L. The Battle of Etchoe took place during the Cherokee War of 1760-61 between the Cherokee and the English. That war, a subconflict within the French and Indian War, began when whites murdered a number [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Exploring North Carolina: Native American History
by Agan, Kelly. Exploring North Carolina: American Indian History This page gathers resources in NCpedia that broadly cover the [...] (from Government & Heritage Library, State Library of North Carolina.)
French and Indian War
by Branch, Paul, Marshall, R. Jackson, III. French and Indian War (1754-63) grew out of competition between Great Britain and France for land in North America. As part of the larger Seven Years War in Europe, colonists and Indians were caught [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
George, Charles
by Agan, Kelly. Charles George, member of the Cherokee Tribe and Korean War hero, was born on August 23, 1932 within the Qualla Boundary of North Carolina. Given the named “Tsali”, translated as Charles or Charlie, [...] (from Government & Heritage Library, State Library of North Carolina.)
Great Trading Path
by Davis, R. P. Stephen, Jr. The Great Trading Path, or the Occaneechi Path, was one of many Indian trails in use when the English first explored the North Carolina backcountry during the late seventeenth century. Before [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Greene County
by Criner, Allyson C. Greene County, located in the Coastal Plain region of east central North Carolina, was formed from Dobbs County (which no longer exists) in 1791. Tuscarora Indians originally inhabited the region, [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Hagler (Arataswa or Oroloswa)
by Cashion, Jerry C. Arataswa or Oroloswa Hagler, king or head man of the Catawbas (ca. 1749–63), lived and died in the region that was in bitter dispute between the two Carolinas. Upon the murder of The Young Warrior [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Haliwa Indians and Haliwa-Saponi Tribe
by Wetmore, Ruth Y. The Haliwa Indians were recognized as a tribe by the North Carolina legislature in 1965. The tribal name is a combination of Halifax and Warren Counties, where the majority of the Haliwa live. One [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Hubbard, Jeremiah
by Newlin, Algie I. Jeremiah Hubbard, educator and Quaker leader, was born in Mecklenburg County, Va., the son of Joseph and Ann Crews Hubbard. He was the grandson of Hardiman Crews and his Indian wife, whose name has [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Indian Cabinetmakers in Piedmont North Carolina
by Marshall, Patricia Phillips, Hazel, Forest. Many students of history know about the career of Thomas Day, a free African American who, by 1850, had built North Carolina’s largest cabinetmaking shop in Milton, Caswell County. Day designed and [...] (from Tar Heel Junior Historian, NC Museum of History.)
Indian Museum of the Carolinas
by Oxendine, Linda. Indian Museum of the Carolinas by Linda Oxendine, 2006 The Indian Museum of the Carolinas is nestled in a grove of pine, sweet gum, and white oak trees off Turnpike Road in Laurinburg. [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Indian Trading Paths
by Magnuson, Tom, Williams, Wiley J. Indian Trading Paths by Tom Magnuson, 2006 Additional research provided by Wiley J. Williams. See also: Great Trading Path; Trading [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Integral Society
by Powell, William S. "Integral society" was a descriptive term for the objective of royal governor Arthur Dobbs (1754-65) to alleviate the problem of unsatisfactory race relations between the English and the native [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Inventors, North Carolina
by Davis, Lenwood. Many people are unaware of the numerous inventions and scientific breakthroughs that have happened in North Carolina. They probably have heard of Wilbur and Orville Wright and the first sustained, [...] (from Tar Heel Junior Historian, NC Museum of History.)
Jacobs, Priscilla Freeman (from Tar Heel Junior Historian)
by Lerch, Patricia B., Jacobs, Priscilla Freeman. Priscilla Freeman Jacobs Related Entries: American Indian Education Longtime Chief of the Waccamaw-Siouan by Dr. Patricia B. Lerch, in collaboration with Priscilla Freeman Jacobs Reprinted [...] (from Tar Heel Junior Historian, NC Museum of History.)
Judaculla Rock
by Anderson, William L. Judaculla Rock, associated with the Cherokee legend of Tsu'kalu, is a large soapstone rock covered with petroglyphs located on Caney Fork Creek off N.C. 107 in Jackson County. According to legend, [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Junaluska
by McKinney, Gordon B. Junaluska, Cherokee warrior and hero of Andrew Jackson's victory over the Creeks at Horseshoe Bend in 1814, was born near the head of the Little Tennessee River in either Macon County, N.C., or Rabun [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Keyauwee Indians
by Green, Michael D. The Keyauwee Indians, at the beginning of the eighteenth century, were living in a town surrounded by palisades located near the Uwharrie River in present-day Randolph County. Nestled in a valley [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Language Tells NC History
by Wolfram, Walt, Reaser, Jeffrey. Have you ever used a juvember for target practice, seen a boomer in a tree, or acted like a dingbatter? If you know what these words mean, you probably have traveled all over North Carolina and know [...] (from Tar Heel Junior Historian, NC Museum of History.)
Learning among the Lumbee (from Tar Heel Junior Historian)
by Towery, Keri. Native Americans have very different views about learning and teaching than other population groups in the United States. Their children learn to respect individuals and to encourage the talents of [...] (from Tar Heel Junior Historian, NC Museum of History.)
Lederer Expedition
by Butler, Lindley S. John Lederer's expedition of 20 May 1670 to 18 July 1670, the second of three journeys by the German explorer, was the first extensive exploration of the Carolina Piedmont and provided the first [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Long Lance, Buffalo Child
by Smith, Donald B. Long Lance, Buffalo Child by Donald B. Smith, 1991 1 Dec. 1890–20 Mar. 1932 Buffalo Child Long Lance, author and actor, was one of the best-known North American Indians of the late 1920s. In [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Lost Colony
by Evans, Phillip W. The Lost Colony is the popular name given to the English colony of approximately 150 men, women, and boys that settled on Roanoke Island in July 1587 under the leadership of artist John White. The [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Lowry Band
by Mitchell, Thornton W. During the Civil War many Lumbee Indians of Robeson County banded together under the leadership of Allen Lowry and hid in swamps along the Lumber River to avoid forced labor in the building of [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Lowry War
by McElroy, Jenny. The Lowry War by Jenny McElroyUNC - North Carolina Collection, 2008"This Month in North Carolina History" series. Reprinted with permission. On March 3, 1865, Allen Lowry and [...] (from University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Libraries.)
Lowry, Henry Berry
by Evans, William Mckee. Lowry, Henry Berry by William Mckee Evans, 1991 ca. 1846–72? See also:  Henry Berry Lowry, By Jefferson Currie, in the Tar Heel Junior Historian, Spring [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Lowry, Henry Berry (from Tar Heel Junior Historian)
by Currie, Jefferson. On a hot June day in 1999, a young Lumbee Indian man, Randall Oxendine, stood on the banks of the old millpond at Bear Swamp and yelled, “I’m gonna get you, Henry Berry!”  Gabrial Cummings [...] (from Tar Heel Junior Historian, NC Museum of History.)
Luis, Don de Velasco
by Vigneras, L. A. Don de Velasco Luis, Indian chieftain, was the brother of the cacique of Ajacan, located inside Chesapeake Bay between the thirty-seventh and thirty-eighth parallels. As a boy, he was picked up by [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Lumbee Indians - Part 1: Introduction
by Stilling, Glenn Ellen Starr. Part i: Introduction; Part ii: Theories of Lumbee Origins; Part iii: Discrimination and Injustice in the Nineteenth Century; Part iv: Lumbee Pursuit of Education, Civil Rights, [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Lumbee Indians - Part 2: Origins
by Stilling, Glenn Ellen Starr. Part i: Introduction; Part ii: Theories of Lumbee Origins; Part iii: Discrimination and Injustice in the Nineteenth Century; Part iv: Lumbee Pursuit of Education, Civil Rights, [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Lumbee Indians - Part 3: 19th Century
by Stilling, Glenn Ellen Starr. Part i: Introduction; Part ii: Theories of Lumbee Origins; Part iii: Discrimination and Injustice in the Nineteenth Century; Part iv: Lumbee Pursuit of Education, Civil Rights, [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Lumbee Indians - Part 4: Education, Civil Rights, Self-Governance
by Stilling, Glenn Ellen Starr. Part i: Introduction; Part ii: Theories of Lumbee Origins; Part iii: Discrimination and Injustice in the Nineteenth Century; Part iv: Lumbee Pursuit of Education, Civil Rights, [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Lumbee Indians - Part 5: Fight for federal recognition
by Stilling, Glenn Ellen Starr. Part i: Introduction; Part ii: Theories of Lumbee Origins; Part iii: Discrimination and Injustice in the Nineteenth Century; Part iv: Lumbee Pursuit of Education, Civil Rights, [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Lumbee Indians - Part 6: Language and culture
by Stilling, Glenn Ellen Starr. Part i: Introduction; Part ii: Theories of Lumbee Origins; Part iii: Discrimination and Injustice in the Nineteenth Century; Part iv: Lumbee Pursuit of Education, Civil Rights, [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Lumbee Indians - Part 7: References
by Stilling, Glenn Ellen Starr. Part i: Introduction; Part ii: Theories of Lumbee Origins; Part iii: Discrimination and Injustice in the Nineteenth Century; Part iv: Lumbee Pursuit of Education, Civil Rights, [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Lumbee Indians Face the Ku Klux Klan, 1958
by Graham, Nicholas.   Lumbee Indians Face the Ku Klux Klan, 1958 by Nicholas GrahamUNC - North Carolina Collection, 2005"This Month in North Carolina History" series. Reprinted with [...] (from University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Libraries.)
Manteo
by Quinn, David B. Manteo, leading Carolina Algonquian Indian, was a member of the ruling family of the Croatoan subtribe of the coastal Algonquian group. His mother (or adopted mother) appears to have been the [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Mattamuskeet Indians
by DiNome, William G., Spencer, R. S., Jr. Mattamuskeet Indians by R. S. Spencer Jr. and William G. DiNome, 2006 The Mattamuskeet Indians, also known as the Machapunga or Marimiskeet Indians, inhabited the region of [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
McMillan, Hamilton
by Stacy, Robin Purser. Hamilton McMillan, lawyer and author, described as "a full-blooded Scotchman," was born in Cumberland County near Fayetteville, the only child of William and Ann Patterson McMillan. His earliest [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Medicine Shows
by Menius, Arthur. Medicine Shows by Arthur Menius, 2006 See also: Crazy Water Crystals; Patent Medicines; Country Music Medicine shows, from roughly the end of the Civil [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Meherrin: People of the Water
by Coffey, Michael W. The Meherrin call themselves “People of the Water,” or Kauwets’a:ka (pronounced gau went ch-AAga). They are an Iroquois people, and thus share language, culture, traditions, and allegiance with the [...] (from Research Branch, NC Office of Archives and History.)
Menatonon
by Johnson, F. Roy. Menatonon, king of the Chowanoc Indians, was old and infirm in his limbs when Governor Ralph Lane explored the Chowan River in the spring of 1586. Both the English and the Indians regarded him as the [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Museum of the Cherokee Indian
by Anderson, William L. The Museum of the Cherokee Indian, established in 1948, was originally housed in a log building on the Qualla Boundary of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians. The initial collection of the museum [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Native American Settlement of NC
by Claggett, Stephen R. First Immigrants: Native American Settlement of North Carolina by Stephen R. Claggett Reprinted with permission from the Tar Heel Junior Historian. Spring 1995. Tar Heel Junior Historian [...] (from Tar Heel Junior Historian, NC Museum of History.)
Natural History of North-Carolina
by Simpson, Marcus B., Jr. First published in Dublin in 1737, John Brickell's Natural History of North-Carolina was ostensibly written from firsthand observations made by Brickell during his sojourn in North Carolina. The [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
NC Commission of Indian Affairs
by Richardson, Gregory A. In the mid-1900s, American Indian communities in North Carolina were struggling for survival, facing many adversities, and without a voice in local or state government. These communities were, for [...] (from Tar Heel Junior Historian, NC Museum of History.)
Nooherooka: Site of decisive battle of the Tuscarora War, March 20-23, 1713
by Howard, Joshua. European colonists encroached on Native American land as the colony of North Carolina grew; consequently tensions escalated between the two groups. In 1711, the Tuscarora, who controlled most of the [...] (from Research Branch, NC Office of Archives and History.)
North Carolina Legends & Myths: The “Three Sisters”
by Wilson, Sheila. North Carolina Legends & Myths: The “Three Sisters” as told by Shelia Wilson Reprinted with permission from Tar Heel Junior Historian 45:1 (Fall 2005). Copyright 2005, North Carolina [...] (from Tar Heel Junior Historian, NC Museum of History.)
North Carolina recognizes Lumbee
by McKown, Harry. On February 10, 1885, the state of North Carolina legally recognized the identity of the "Indians of Robeson County," a milestone in the history of the tribe now known as the Lumbee. One scholar has [...] (from University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Libraries.)
Occaneechi Indians
by Davis, R. P. Stephen, Jr. The Occaneechi Indians were a tribe of American Indians who lived in the Piedmont region of what are now North Carolina and southern Virginia prior to European settlement. They are first mentioned in [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Oconaluftee Indian Village
by Holland, Ron. On 16 Aug. 1950 the board of trustees of the Cherokee Historical Association in Cherokee-sponsor of the popular outdoor drama Unto These Hills-approved the idea of constructing a replica of an [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Outlawry
by Kapp, M. Keith. Outlawry, involving declarations issued by the courts against fleeing felons, came to North Carolina as part of English common law. During the Regulator crisis in 1764, a statute replacing common-law [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Paint Rock
by Wegner, Ansley Herring. Paint Rock By Ansley Wegner, Research Branch, NC Office of Archives and History, [...] (from Research Branch, NC Office of Archives and History.)
Pamlico Indians
by Wetmore, Ruth Y. The Pamlico Indians lived south of the Pamlico River in present-day Beaufort and Pamlico Counties and were known as the Pomouik by members of the 1585-86 Raleigh expeditions. A smallpox epidemic in [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Pasquotank Indians
by Green, Michael D. The Pasquotank Indians, also known as the Paspatank, were last identified in the early eighteenth century on the Pasquotank River north of Albemarle Sound. They were probably part of the Weapemeoc [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Pemisapan (Wingina)
by Johnson, F. Roy. Pemisapan (Wingina), was king, or head man, of the Algonquian (or Algonkin)-speaking Indians on Roanoke Island and the opposite mainland when Sir Walter Raleigh was seeking to establish an English [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Pine Needle Art
by Cross, Dennis W. Pine needle art is an outgrowth of an ancient material culture tradition in North Carolina. For several millennia, the Native Americans living in the region that became North Carolina fashioned [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Proclamation of 1763
by Spindel, Donna J. The Proclamation of 1763 is intimately tied to the history of English-Native American relations during the colonial era. The purpose of the proclamation was to stop white settlers or traders from [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Queen, Joel
by Hall, Lisa Coston. When most people look at a lump of clay or a piece of walnut, they see just that—a simple, unmoving object. Joel Queen, though, looks at such raw material and sees something waiting to be turned into [...] (from Tar Heel Junior Historian, NC Museum of History.)
Ramps
by Tetterton, Beverly. Ramps (Allium tricoccum) are wild leeks or onions found in eastern North America. They grow wild high in the Great Smoky Mountains. Related to the ramson, a kind of garlic with broad leaves, the ramp [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Robbins, Parker David
by Powell, William S. Parker David Robbins, soldier, legislator, and inventor, was born in Bertie County, the son of John A. Robbins; his mother's name is unknown. A mulatto with Chowan Indian ancestors, Robbins was [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Ross, John
by Powell, William S. John Ross, friend and leader of the Cherokee Indians, was born in Cherokee country near Lookout Mountain in an area that was relinquished by North Carolina to the federal government in the same year. [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Salt Licks
by Kennedy, John R. American Indians, and later European settlers, held salt in high esteem. Since the region lacked natural salt, even the salt "waste" from preserving hides and meats was put to use. The Indians [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Saponi Indians
by Green, Michael D. The Saponi Indians were a Siouan-speaking people who lived in the Virginia Piedmont near present-day Charlottesville. John Smith found them there, in a region he broadly labeled Monacan, in 1607. [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Sappony Indians
by Desiderio, Dante, Munford, Sherry Epps, Stewart, Kara. Sappony Indians The Sappony are a Souian tribe, along with the Waccamaw, Occaneechi, and Enos. by Kara Stewart, Dante Desiderio, Sherry Epps Munford, 2011. Reprinted with [...] (from North Carolina Humanities Council and UNC American Indian Center.)
Saunooke, Osley Bird
by Conway, Robert O. Saunooke, Osley Bird by Robert O. Conway, 1994 19 July 1906–15 April 1965 See also: Qualla [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Saura Indians
by Butler, Lindley S. The Saura Indians, also known as the Cheraw, were one of a number of small Siouan tribes in the colonial backcountry (the modern-day Piedmont) of North Carolina. The ancestors of the Saura are [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
School Desegregation
by Currie, Jefferson. School Desegregation "With Deliberate Speed: North Carolina and School Desegregation" by Jefferson Currie II Reprinted with permission from the Tar Heel Junior Historian. Fall 2004. Tar Heel [...] (from Tar Heel Junior Historian, NC Museum of History.)
Secotan
by Powell, William S. Secotan by William S. Powell, 2006 Secotan was a large village of Algonquian-speaking Indians that was encountered in July 1585 along both banks of the Pamlico River by Sir Richard Grenville, [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Segregation
by Hatley Wadelington, Flora. Segregation in the 1920s "Assigned Places" by Flora Hatley Wadelington Reprinted with permission from the Tar Heel Junior Historian. Spring 2004. Tar Heel Junior Historian Association, NC [...] (from Tar Heel Junior Historian, NC Museum of History.)
Sequoyah
by Folmsbee, Stanley J. Sequoyah by Stanley J. Folmsbee 1770?-August 1843 Sequoyah, inventor of Cherokee syllabary, was born in the Indian town of Taskigi, Tenn., then western North Carolina. His father probably was [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Settlement of the Mountains, 1775-1838 (from Tar Heel Junior Historian)
by Holland, Ron. Settlement of the Mountains, 1775-1838 "North Carolina's Final Frontier" Related Entries: Cherokee Indians; Asheville; Regions by Ron Holland Reprinted with permission from the Tar Heel [...] (from Tar Heel Junior Historian, NC Museum of History.)
Shakori Indians
by Devine, Christine S. The Shakori Indians were one of several small tribes that occupied the Piedmont region of what is now North Carolina during early English colonization. The prehistoric origins of the Shakori are [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Shell Mounds
by Ansley, John F. Large amounts of discarded shells, left in mounds along the coast by early Indian communities, often provide clear evidence of the people who once inhabited the region that became North Carolina. [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Shinn, Terry: High Rock
by Cecelski, David S. One night last summer, Terry Shinn visited my family's campsite next to the French Broad River, in the Blue Ridge Mountains. The tall, soft-spoken stranger lived just up a short path, in the faded [...] (from Listening to History, News and Observer.)
Sissipahaw Indians
by Green, Michael D. In 1701 Englishman John Lawson visited the Sissipahaw town on the Haw River in present-day Alamance County. Believed to have been a Siouan-speaking people, the Sissipahaw were also known as the [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Smith, Nimrod Jarrett
by Perdue, Theda. Nimrod Jarrett Smith, principal chief of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians from 1880 to 1891, was born near Murphy. His mother was Cherokee and his father was a white man who acted as translator [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Smith, Nimrod Jarrett
by Wegner, Ansley Herring. Nimrod Jarrett Smith 1837 - 1893 by Ansley Wegner Research Branch, NC Office of Archives and [...] (from Research Branch, NC Office of Archives and History.)
Stickball
by Anderson, William L., Battle, Charles. Stickball by William L. Anderson, 2006 Additional research provided by Charles Battle. See also: Cherokee Indians Stickball, a Native American game similar to lacrosse and called [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Stoga, John Astooga
by Powell, William S. Stoga, John Astooga by William S. Powell, 1994 d. 15 Sept. 1862 John Astooga Stoga, popular Cherokee [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Stuart, John
by III, James H. O'Donnell. John Stuart, Indian agent, was born in Iverness, Scotland. He went to sea as a young man and then sailed for America in 1748. Like other Scots of the same period, Stuart sought economic opportunity [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Swimmer
by Powell, William S. Swimmer by William S. Powell ca. 1835–March 1899 Swimmer, Cherokee traditionalist and storyteller, was born in the Cherokee country of southwestern North Carolina. His Cherokee name, [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
The Forest and the Indians
by Parramore, Thomas C., Watson, Harry L., Nathans, Sydney, Anderson, Jean Bradley, Clayton, Thomas H., Fenn, Elizabeth A., Wood, Peter H. By Elizabeth A. Fenn, Peter H. Wood, Harry L. Watson, Thomas H. Clayton, Sydney Nathans, Thomas C. Parramore, and Jean B. Anderson; Maps by Mark Anderson Moore. Edited by Joe A. Mobley. [...] (from The Way We Lived in North Carolina, NC Office of Archives and History and UNC Press.)
The Tuscarora War
by Parramore, Thomas C., Watson, Harry L., Nathans, Sydney, Anderson, Jean Bradley, Clayton, Thomas H., Fenn, Elizabeth A., Wood, Peter H. By Elizabeth A. Fenn, Peter H. Wood, Harry L. Watson, Thomas H. Clayton, Sydney Nathans, Thomas C. Parramore, and Jean B. Anderson; Maps by Mark Anderson Moore. Edited by Joe A. Mobley. [...] (from The Way We Lived in North Carolina, NC Office of Archives and History and UNC Press.)
Thomas's Legion
by Anderson, William L. Thomas's Legion was formed during the Civil War by William Holland Thomas, the only white man ever to become chief of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians. Believing that North Carolinians would not [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Thomas, William Holland
by McKinney, Gordon B. William Holland Thomas, white chief of the Eastern Band of the Cherokee Indians, legislator, and Confederate officer, was born in rural Haywood County shortly after the death of his father, Richard [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Thorpe, James Francis
by Reising, R. W. Thorpe, James Francis by R. W. Reising, 1996 28 May 1888–28 Mar. 1953 See also: Jim Thorpe and Babe Ruth James Francis Thorpe, perhaps the greatest performer in the history of sport, spent [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Town Creek Indian Mound
by Locklear, Alexis W. Town Creek Indian Mound is located five miles southeast of Mount Gilead in Montgomery County. More than 600 years ago, migrating Indians selected this spot overlooking the Little River for a [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Trading Ford
by Bingham, William H., Jr. Trading Ford was a shallow area of the Yadkin River located about seven miles northeast of Salisbury. As one of the few places where the Yadkin could be crossed on foot or horseback, Trading Ford was [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Tryon's Line
by Powell, William S. Tryon's Line by William S. Powell, 2006 See Also: Proclamation of 1763 Tryon's Line, running roughly north to south across western North Carolina, came about as a result of the Royal [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Tuscarora Indians
by Parramore, Thomas C., Towles, Louis P., Stevenson, George, Thompson, Harry L. Tuscarora Indians by Thomas C. Parramore, 2006 Additional research provide by George Stevenson, Harry L. Thompson, and Louis P. Towles.   See also: NCpedia articles related to the [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Two World Wars
by Belton, Tom. Today North Carolina is a major center for aviation-related military bases. These include the Coast Guard station at Elizabeth City; the Marine Corps Air Station at Cherry Point, which provides [...] (from Tar Heel Junior Historian, NC Museum of History.)
University of North Carolina at Pembroke
by Williams, Wiley J. The University of North Carolina at Pembroke was established on 7 Mar. 1887 as Croatan Normal School by the General Assembly at the request of the Lumbee Indians and other Native Americans in the [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Usteneka
by Trotman, Mary Nelle. Usteneka, Cherokee leader, is referred to in some sources as Ostenaco, Autositty, Ustonekka, Outacite, Outacity, and Judd's Friend. There seems to be no substantial agreement among sources as to [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Waccamaw Indians
by DiNome, William G. The Waccamaw Indians were a Siouan-speaking tribe, probably related to the so-called Cape Fear Indians, who populated parts of modern-day southeastern North Carolina. At the time of the first English [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Wanchese
by Quinn, David B. Wanchese, (name from bird-gens), was an Algonquian Indian of the Roanoke tribe living on or near the present Roanoke Island. He was taken to England in September 1584 by Arthur Barlowe, who had been [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Ward, Nancy (from Tar Heel Junior Historian)
by Wilson, Emily Herring. Children born to Cherokee parents in what is now North Carolina before the Cherokee had any contact with European settlers would have been a members of their mother’s clan. Property belonged to the [...] (from Tar Heel Junior Historian, NC Museum of History.)
Warriors of AniKituhwa
by Duncan, Barbara Reimensnyder. A powerful cry echoes from the mountains: “Whoooooo hooo!” A group of Cherokee men answers even louder: “Whoooooo hooo!” The cry from the mountains echoes back. Seven men walk out, covered in red [...] (from Tar Heel Junior Historian, NC Museum of History.)
Watauga Settlement
by Cockrell, David L. The Watauga Settlement was the first community established in North Carolina's western frontier and holds the distinction of being perhaps the first American settlement west of the Appalachian [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Weapemeoc Indians
by Green, Michael D. The Weapemeoc Indians, also known as the Yeopim Indians, were a branch of Algonquian-speaking peoples living in sprawling villages along the northern rim of the Albemarle Sound when the Roanoke [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
White Doe, Legend of
by Barefoot, Daniel W. The mysterious disappearance between 1587 and 1590 of the English colonists on Roanoke Island, known as the "Lost Colony," spawned numerous legends and ghost stories among the people who later [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Yamassee War
by Williams, Wiley J. The Yamassee War, although fought in what is now South Carolina, involved many North Carolina Indian tribes. The war began on 15 Apr. 1715 as a reaction to the abusive trade practices that white [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Yeopim
by Hill, Michael. The Yeopim Indians were small in number but played important roles in North Carolina history. Part of the Algonquian linguistic group, the Yeopim inhabited the present counties of Camden, Currituck, [...] (from Research Branch, NC Office of Archives and History.)
Yonaguska (or Drowning Bear)
by Perdue, Theda. Yonaguska (or Drowning Bear), was head chief of the Cherokee middle towns in the crucial years from 1800 until his death. The exact date and place of his birth are unknown, but Charles Lanman, who [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
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