Banks and banking

Banks and banking
Bank Holiday of 1933
by Ireland, Robert E. Between the stock market crash of October 1929 and mid-March 1933, 215 North Carolina banks, with a combined $110,854,000 in assets, failed. Bank runs had increased in early 1933, prompting the [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Bank of America
by Pleasants, Julian M. Bank of America, the fifth-largest corporation in the world in 2004, has its roots in the 1957 merger of two Charlotte institutions, the American Trust Company and the Commercial National Bank. The [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Bank of Cape Fear
by Steelman, Bennett L. The Bank of Cape Fear was the first private state bank chartered in North Carolina and one of the state's largest banks until the Civil War. Created by an act of the General Assembly in 1804, the [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Banking
by Gatton, T. Harry, Coonin, Bryna R. Banking by T. Harry Gatton, 2006 Additional research provided by Bryna R. Coonin. See also: Bank of America; Bank of Cape Fear; Branch Banking and Trust Company; Central Carolina Bank [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Blades, James Bishop
by Carraway, Gertrude S. James Bishop Blades, lumberman, industrialist, and financier, of English ancestry, was born at Bishopville, Md., the second son of Captain Peter Clowes Blades and Nancy Emeline West and a grandson of [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Blair, William Allen
by Morgan, Thomas S. William Allen Blair, chairman of the state welfare board in North Carolina, banker, and civic leader, was born in High Point to Solomon I. and Abigail Hunt Blair. His maternal grandfather had been a [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Boylan, William
by Lemmon, Sarah McCulloh. William Boylan, journalist, planter, and advocate of internal improvements, was born in Somerset County, N.J., the fourth son of fifteen children of John and Elizabeth Hodge Boylan. He moved to [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Branch Banking and Trust Company
by Orvedahl, Ginny, McGee, Barry. The Branch Banking and Trust Company was established in Wilson in 1872, when Alpheus Branch and Thomas Jefferson Hadley formed Branch and Hadley, a private banking firm. In 1887 Branch bought [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Braswell, James Craig
by Johnston, Hugh B., Jr. James Craig Braswell, banker and community leader, was born and reared near Battleboro, a son of Thomas Permenter Braswell and his wife, Emily Stallings. The founder of the line was the Reverend [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Brown, Peter Marshall
by Campbell, Steven Edward. Peter Marshall Brown, banker, mayor of Charlotte, and trustee of Davidson College, was born in Charlotte, the son of Colonel John L. Brown and Nannie Kerr Brown. Brown grew up amidst wealth, in a [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Browne, Peter
by Norris, Elizabeth E. Peter Browne, counselor at law, was a native of Knockadock in Aberdeenshire, Scotland. He came to America at an early age, destitute of friends and fortune. There seem to be no records pertaining to [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Building and Loan Associations
by Horton, Clarence E., Jr. Building and Loan Associations are the direct descendants of English building societies, which began in Birmingham, England, in 1781. In America, organizations such as the Oxford Provident Building [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Burgwin, Hill
by Moore, James Elliott. Nathaniel Hill Burgwin, corporation lawyer, civic leader, and Episcopal layman, was born at the Hermitage, the ancestral home of the Burgwin family in New Hanover County. He was the son of George [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Burgwyn, William Hyslop Sumner
by Sheppard, Juanita Ann. William Hyslop Sumner Burgwyn, lawyer, soldier, and banker, has been described as the most versatile person ever to have lived in Vance County. The son of Anna Greenough of Boston and Henry King [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Burgwyn, William Hyslop Sumner
by Powell, William S. William Hyslop Sumner Burgwyn, lawyer, judge, and bank president, was born in Jackson, the son of George Pollock and Emma Ridley Burgwyn. He attended John Graham's School in Warrenton, Episcopal High [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Buxton, John Cameron
by Green, C. Sylvester. John Cameron Buxton, attorney and banker, was born in Asheville, the son of Jarvis and Anne Cameron Buxton. He obtained his preparatory education in the local schools and at St. Clements Hall, [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Cameron, Duncan
by Sanders, Charles Richard. Duncan Cameron, planter, judge, politician, and banker, was born in Mecklenburg County, Va. His father, the Reverend John Cameron (d. 1815), an Episcopal priest, was the son of Duncan and Margaret [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Central Carolina Bank & Trust Company
by Williams, Wiley J. Central Carolina Bank & Trust Company by Wiley J. Williams, 2006 The Central Carolina Bank & Trust Company traces its roots to a 1903 charter for the Durham Loan and Trust Company, [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Cole, Stephen William
by Rea, Kathleen M. Cole, Stephen William by Kathleen M. Rea, 1979 1 Jan. 1813–19 Sept. 1889 Stephen William Cole, planter and banker, son of William Terry and Judith Moseley Leake Cole, was born in [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Counterfeiting
by Norris, David A. Counterfeiting plagued North Carolina throughout its early history, with criminals making and passing fraudulent coins even before the colony issued its own money. North Carolina distributed its [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Cox, Jonathan Elwood
by Chestnut, Paul I. Jonathan Elwood Cox, banker and manufacturer, was born on his father's farm in Rich Square, Northampton County. He was the son of Jonathan Elliott and Elizabeth Hare Cox, who had met while students [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Coxe, Franklin
by Copeland, J. Isaac. Franklin Coxe, industrialist, banker, and railroad executive, was born in Rutherfordton, the son of Francis Sidney and Jane McBee Alexander Coxe. An ancestor, Daniel Coxe, had settled in New Jersey [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Craige, Kerr
by Brawley, James S. Kerr Craige, attorney, assistant postmaster general, and banker, was the son of Burton and Elizabeth Phifer Erwin Craige. His father was born in Rowan County and represented Salisbury and Rowan [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Credit Unions
by Evans, Phillip W., Boswell, Sanford L. Practical cooperative credit was developed in Germany in the mid-1800s. In 1913 John Sprunt Hill, a wealthy Duplin County businessman and chairman of North Carolina's banking commission, was a member [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Currency Part 1: Diverse Currency and Severe Money Shortages in Colonial North Carolina
by Towles, Louis P., Norris, David A., Paden, John, deTreville, John R., Fulghum, R. Neil. Part 1: Diverse Currency and Severe Money Shortages in Colonial North Carolina; Part 2: Revolution-Era Currency and the Importance of North Carolina Gold Production; Part 3: The Civil War and the [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Currency Part 2: Revolution-Era Currency and the Importance of North Carolina Gold Production
by Towles, Louis P., Norris, David A., Paden, John, deTreville, John R., Fulghum, R. Neil. Part 1: Diverse Currency and Severe Money Shortages in Colonial North Carolina; Part 2: Revolution-Era Currency and the Importance of North Carolina Gold Production; Part 3: The Civil War and the [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Currency Part 3: The Civil War and the Nationalization of the Monetary System
by Towles, Louis P., Norris, David A., Paden, John, deTreville, John R., Fulghum, R. Neil. Part 1: Diverse Currency and Severe Money Shortages in Colonial North Carolina; Part 2: Revolution-Era Currency and the Importance of North Carolina Gold Production; Part 3: The Civil War and the [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Dewey, Charles
by Mitchell, Memory F. Charles Dewey, banker, was born in New Bern, the son of John Dewey, who was born 29 Apr. 1767 at Stonington, Conn., and died 22 May 1830 at New Bern. John Dewey, an architect, built the Masonic [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Economic Panics
by Faulkner, Ronnie W., Norris, David A., Carpenter, Joanne G., Parker, Randall E. Economic Panics by Randall E. Parker, 2006 Additional research provided by Joanne G. Carpenter, Ronnie W. Faulkner, and David A. Norris. See also: Bank Holiday of 1933; Great [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Etheridge, Robert Bruce
by Stick, David. Etheridge, Robert Bruce by David Stick, 1986 31 July 1878–19 Oct. 1964 Robert Bruce Etheridge, legislator, government official, political leader, educator, and banker, was born at Mother [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Ferebee, Percy Bell
by Stephens, George Myers. Ferebee, Percy Bell by George Myers Stephens, 1986 29 May 1891–30 Dec. 1970 Percy Bell Ferebee, banker and developer, was born in [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
First Citizens Bank & Trust Company
by Johnson, K. Todd. The First Citizens Bank & Trust Company began as the Bank of Smithfield, organized in 1898 as Johnston County's first bank and a precursor to the establishment of the Smithfield tobacco market. [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
First Union Bank Corporation
by Pleasants, Julian M. The First Union Bank Corporation was founded in 1908 by H. M. Victor as the Union National Bank, which developed a strong economic base through innovation. Union National was the first Charlotte bank [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Great Depression
by Steelman, Joseph F. Great Depression and the New Deal by Joseph F. Steelman Reprinted with permission from the Tar Heel Junior Historian. Spring 2010. Tar Heel Junior Historian Association, NC Museum of [...] (from Tar Heel Junior Historian, NC Museum of History.)
Green, Thomas Alexander
by Dill, A. T. Thomas Alexander Green, leading private banker and supporter of public school education in the postbellum years, was born in New Bern, the son of Thomas Green, a shipmaster, and Annie M. Curtis [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Gregory, Fletcher Harrison
by Pegg, Carl H. Gregory, Fletcher Harrison by Carl H. Pegg, 1986 24 Nov. 1882–3 Nov. [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Hadley, Thomas Jefferson, IV
by Hubbard, Thomas. Hadley, Thomas Jefferson, IV by Thomas Hubbard, North Carolina State University, 2013 July 9, 1838-August 3, 1917 Thomas Jefferson Hadley IV, captain, banker, and [...] (from NCpedia.)
Hood, Gurney Pope
by Gatton, T. Harry. Hood, Gurney Pope by T. Harry Gatton, 1988 26 Nov. 1884–20 Nov. [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Hooper, George
by Stumpf, Vernon O. George Hooper, Wilmington merchant, clerk of court, commissioner of navigation, alleged Loyalist, and later first president of the Bank of Cape Fear, was a native of Boston, Mass. He was a younger [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Jackson, Herbert Worth
by Roberts, B. W. C. Jackson, Herbert Worth by B. W. C. Roberts, 1988 15 Feb. 1865–30 Dec. 1936 Herbert Worth Jackson, banker and civic leader, was born in Asheboro, the son of Elvira Evelina Worth and Samuel [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Lash, Israel George
by Williams, Max R. Israel George Lash, businessman, banker, and congressman, was a native of Bethania in Forsyth County. A Moravian by heritage and choice, he was the son of John Christian and Anna Lash. He was [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Lea, Luke
by Gatton, T. Harry. Luke Lea, newspaper editor and publisher, U.S. senator, financier, attorney, and World War I hero, was born at the family ancestral home in Nashville, Tenn., the son of Overton and Ella Cocke Lea. [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Local Government Commission
by Stick, David. The Local Government Commission was created by the General Assembly in 1931 after the funds invested in banks by many local governments had been lost in the stock market crash of 1929. Previously, [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
London, John
by London, Lawrence F. London, John by Lawrence F. London, 1991 23 Oct. 1747–1 March 1816 John London, colonial official, merchant, and banker, was born in Holborn, London, the son of [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Mechanics and Farmers Bank
by Williams, Wiley J. The Mechanics and Farmers Bank, North Carolina's oldest African American-owned bank, was established in 1908 in Durham under the auspices of the North Carolina Mutual and Provident Association [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Morris, Arthur Joseph
by Boushell, Thomas C. Arthur Joseph Morris, founder of the Morris Plan Bank and developer of consumer credit, was born in Tarboro, the son of Joseph and Dora Livingston Jacobs Morris. A graduate of the University of [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
North Carolina Bankers Association
by Gatton, T. Harry. The North Carolina Bankers Association (NCBA), a trade group acting as a legislative liaison at the state and federal level, was formed in July 1897 at a meeting held by the leaders of 22 North [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
North Carolina Society in 1953 and in 2003
by Freeze, Gary. North Carolina has always been a place where the old and the new live side by side. The time period from 1953 to 2003 is no different. Although patterns from the past, such as eating barbecue or [...] (from Tar Heel Junior Historian, NC Museum of History.)
Park, John Alsey
by Green, C. Sylvester. John Alsey Park, journalist, was born in Raleigh, the son of Benjamin Franklin and Frances Beavers Park. His ancestral lines extended from Scotland and Ireland on his father's side, and from Great [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Paschall, Joshua Ernest
by Anderson, Walter W., Jr. Joshua Ernest Paschall, banker, lawyer, and legislator, was born near Black Creek in Wilson County. The son of Joshua Walter and Sallie Poole Paschall, he attended the public schools of Wilson County [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Pate, Zebulon Vance
by Murphy, Eva. Zebulon Vance Pate, businessmen, merchant, banker, landowner, and farmer of Scotland County, which was a part of Richmond County at the time of his birth, was born on the Thoroughgood Pate plantation [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Peace, Samuel Thomas
by Blackburn, George T., II. Peace received his preparatory education at Horner School in Oxford in 1893 and 1897. Between these terms, he was employed as bookkeeper with the firm of J. C. Cooper and Son. In 1899 Peace [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Peace, William
by Frazier, Mrs. S. David. William Peace, merchant and philanthropist, Presbyterian layman, and founder of Peace Institute, was born in Granville County. His father, John Peace, was a wealthy planter; his mother was Margaret [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Pearson, Robert Caldwell
by Poland, Jean Cameron. Robert Caldwell Pearson, merchant, postmaster, bank and railroad president, Democratic leader, jurist, and gold mine and flour mill owner, was born at the family plantation, Silvercreek, on Silver [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Pendleton, Andrew Lewis
by London, George Elliot. Andrew Lewis Pendleton, physician, druggist, and banker, was born at Nixonton, Pasquotank County, the son of Andrew Lewis and Mary Frances Cartwright Pendleton. Pioneer settlers from Virginia in the [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Perry, William Marion
by Perry, Percival. William Marion Perry, Confederate veteran, farmer, millwright, merchant, banker, and a founder of Wingate College and the town of Wingate, was born on Niggerhead Creek, in Union County, the third of [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Polk, William
by Mcfarland, Daniel M. William Polk, hero of the Revolution, banker, and political leader, was born in Mecklenburg County. He was a descendant of Scots-Irish emigrants who went to the Eastern Shore of Maryland in the early [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Pullen, John Turner
by Murray, Elizabeth Davis Reid. John Turner Pullen, banker, philanthropist, author, church founder, and lay preacher, was born in Wake County, the son of Nancy A. (ca. 1828–31 Aug. 1888) and James D. Pullen (ca. 1820–15 Nov. 1887). [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Reese, Addison Hardcastle
by Peck, Stephen R. Addison Hardcastle Reese, banker and civic leader, was born in Baltimore County, Md., the son of Gordon Lippincott and Edith Octavia Ford Reese. His great-grandfather, John T. Ford, was owner of [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Roberts, Edward Gallatin
by Powell, William S. Edward Gallatin Roberts, attorney and public official, was born in Flat Creek, Buncombe County, the son of Mary Elizabeth Buckner and Jacob R. Roberts. He attended Weaverville College, Washington [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Savings and Loan Associations
by Williams, Wiley J. Savings and Loan Associations by Wiley J. Williams, 2006 Savings and Loan Associations (S&Ls) in North Carolina were an outgrowth of the original building and loan associations, which were [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Scott, Hugh Reid
by Green, C. Sylvester. Hugh Reid Scott, attorney and banker, was born in rural Rockingham County, the son of William and Rhoda Reid Scott. His father, a planter and merchant, was a member of the Court of Pleas and Quarter [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Shepard, William Biddle
by Rankin, Marjo E. William Biddle Shepard, lawyer, congressman, and state senator, was born in New Bern, the third of ten children of William and Mary Williams Blount Shepard. His father, a wealthy landowner, was a [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Smith, Charles Aurelius
by Faulkner, Ronnie W. Charles Aurelius Smith, merchant, banker, and governor of South Carolina, was born in Hertford County, N.C., the son of Joseph H. Smith, a farmer, and Eva J. Reddick. He was educated in the common [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
State Bank of North Carolina
by Dean, W. Carson. The State Bank of North Carolina was chartered in 1810 by the state legislature and opened its doors in early 1811. The bank began operations with a central bank in Raleigh, branches at Edenton, New [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Stephenson, Gilbert Thomas
by Gatton, T. Harry. Gilbert Thomas Stephenson, lawyer, banker, author, educator, and farmer, was born at Warren Place near Pendleton, Northampton County, the only child of Susan Anna Fleetwood and James Henry [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Stockton, Richard Gordon
by Wills, Shelda M. Richard Gordon Stockton, lawyer and bank executive, was born in Winston-Salem, the son of Madison Doughty and Martha Vaughn Stockton. He was graduated from Winston-Salem High School in 1907 and [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Taxpayers' League
by Bell, John L. The Taxpayers' League was formed in Buncombe County in early 1928 to promote fiscal responsibility and electoral reform in local government. The Buncombe County league was organized because a [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Vendors and Lenders: New Deal to the 1950s
by Parramore, Thomas C., Watson, Harry L., Nathans, Sydney, Anderson, Jean Bradley, Clayton, Thomas H., Fenn, Elizabeth A., Wood, Peter H. By Elizabeth A. Fenn, Peter H. Wood, Harry L. Watson, Thomas H. Clayton, Sydney Nathans, Thomas C. Parramore, and Jean B. Anderson; Maps by Mark Anderson Moore. Edited by Joe A. Mobley. [...] (from The Way We Lived in North Carolina, NC Office of Archives and History and UNC Press.)
Wachovia Corporation
by Coffin, Alex. The Wachovia Corporation traces its origins to 1866, when the First National Bank of Salem opened, with Israel Lash as president. Following Lash's death in the late 1870s, his nephew William Lemly [...] (from Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press.)
Weaver, William Trotter
by Rhoades, William Weaver, Rhoades, Verne, Jr. William Trotter Weaver, pioneer in furnishing electric power to western North Carolina, was born in the Reems Creek valley near Weaverville, the youngest son of James Thomas and Hester Trotter [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Wheeler, John Hervey
by Weare, Walter B. John Harvey Wheeler, black businessman and civil rights leader, was born in Kittrell on the campus of Kittrell College, an African Methodist Episcopal church school of which his father was president. [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
White, Stephen Van Culen
by Wilson, Deborah B. White, Stephen Van Culen by Deborah B. Wilson, 1996 1 Aug. 1831–18 Jan. 1913 Stephen Van Culen White, banker and congressman, was born in Chatham County, the son of Hiram and Julia Brewer [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
Whiting, Seymour Webster
by Anthony, Robert G., Jr. Whiting, Seymour Webster by Robert G. Anthony, Jr., 1996 15 Aug. 1816–2 Jan. 1855 Seymour Webster Whiting, banker, railroad official, and poet, was a native of Stratford, Conn. When about [...] (from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, University of North Carolina Press.)
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