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American Indian Tribes in North Carolina

Originally published as "The State and Its Tribes"

by Gregory A. Richardson
Reprinted with permission from the Tar Heel Junior Historian, Fall 2005.
Tar Heel Junior Historian Association, NC Museum of History

See also: Native American Settlement

North Carolina has the largest American Indian population east of the Mississippi River and the eighth-largest Indian population in the United States. As noted by the 2000 U.S. Census, 99,551 American Indians lived in North Carolina, making up 1.24 percent of the population. This total is for people identifying themselves as American Indian alone. The number is more than 130,000 when including American Indian in combination with other races. The State of North Carolina recognizes eight tribes:

North Carolina also has granted legal status to four organizations representing and providing services for American Indians living in urban areas: Guilford Native American Association (Guilford and surrounding counties), Cumberland County Association for Indian People (Cumberland County), Metrolina Native American Association (Mecklenburg and surrounding counties), and Triangle Native American Society (Wake and surrounding counties).

The Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians is the only North Carolina tribe officially recognized by the federal government. The federal Lumbee Act of 1956 recognized that tribe in name only.

Some may think of treaties involving land as the only example of government relationships with Indians over the years. But the General Assembly’s creation of the N.C. Commission of Indian Affairs in 1971 offers strong evidence that the state has a positive relationship today with its American Indian citizens, tribes, and groups. The relationship between North Carolina and its tribes is well documented in statutes; in rules and regulations that govern state­funded programs; and in rules associated with historic Indian schools, court rulings, and faith organizations. The modern federal government has likewise recognized North Carolina’s rich American Indian heritage and history.

The benefits of state recognition range from being eligible for membership on the Commission of Indian Affairs and for program funding, to securing a rightful place in history. Since 1979 the commission has coordinated procedures for recognition. A committee of members from recognized tribes and groups reviews applications. Tribes and groups must meet certain organizational requirements. Criteria that then may be used to support an application for recognition include traditional North Carolina Indian names; kinship relationships with other recognized tribes; official records that recognize the people as Indian; anthropological or historical accounts tied to the group’s Indian ancestry; documented traditions, customs, legends, and so forth that signify the group’s Indian heritage; and others.

The creation of institutions such as Pembroke Normal School and East Carolina Indian School offers an example of the historic relationship that Indians have had with this state. The reservation lands currently held in trust for the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians and the Historic Tuscarora Indian Reservation in Bertie County are examples of formal relationships between Indians and the federal government. Today, because 10,350 American Indian students attend public schools in the county, the Public Schools of Robeson County administers one of the largest Indian education programs in the nation, funded by the U.S. Department of Education. Statewide, 19,416 American Indian students attend public schools. The Haliwa-Saponi tribe has reestablished the old Haliwa Indian School in Warren County, which the author attended through the ninth grade. The new Haliwa-Saponi Tribal School is a charter school, attended by about 150 students. Such arrangements, or ongoing government-to-government relationships, offer examples of modern-day treaties with American Indians.

The situations of Indians differ from state to state. The United States has more than 550 federally recognized tribes and forty to fifty state-recognized ones. In North Carolina and nearby states, most Indians are members of state-recognized tribes and do not live on reservations. The latter is much the case nationwide, according to the 2000 U.S. Census, which found that more than 62 percent of Indians live off reservations. In Virginia there are three reservations, none of which is recognized by the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA); BIA does not provide the tribal members services or funding for such things as health care, schools, police, or fire protection. The tribes are not authorized to establish casinos or other gaming enterprises that federal recognition allows as an economic development tool. In North Carolina, only the Eastern Band of Cherokee tribe is eligible to receive BIA services and to operate a casino. In South Carolina, only the Catawba tribe has this status.

American Indians have long been studied and researched, especially by the academic community; however, for many years, little of that information found its way into history books. There are volumes of information on file about American Indians at North Carolina’s college campuses; only recently has much material begun to be included in textbooks used in public or private schools. Indians constantly question the common practice of focusing on Plains Indians in books and in popular media such as movies or television programs. The history and culture of Eastern Woodland Indians often get overlooked.

In North Carolina, before the Civil Rights era, Indians experienced discrimination and different forms of racism. At one time, some were discouraged to even admit that they were Indians. In several counties, separate schools were established for American Indians. These schools, built by volunteers and paid for by the Indian community, were small, mostly of one or two rooms. In some of these same counties, separate dining and other public facilities for the races were common before the 1960s; often, there were no “Indian” facilities—only “white” and “colored.” For a long time, limited employment opportunities existed for American Indians.

Today’s American Indians enjoy more opportunities. Their culture, heritage, and accomplishments are shared more often in and outside their communities. And the North Carolina government continues to increase its support of the many efforts of the state’s first inhabitants.

At the time of the publication of this article, Gregory A. Richardson was the executive director of the N.C. Commission of Indian Affairs. He is a member of the Haliwa-Saponi tribe. He served as one of the conceptual editors for the Fall 2005 issue of Tar Heel Junior Historian.

Educator Resources:

Grade 8: 8 Tribes, 1 State: Native Americans in North Carolina.  North Carolina Civic Education Consortium. http://civics.sites.unc.edu/files/2014/06/NCNativeAmericans.pdf


References and additional resources:

Resources in NCpedia:  Lumbee Indians; Haliwa Indians; Sappony Indians; Meherrin Indians; Occaneechi Indians; Waccamaw Indians; Cherokee Indians.

American Indian Timeline from the NC Museum of History.

Learn NC resources on North Carolina Indian tribes.

Teaching About American Indians in North Carolina (Learn NC): http://www.learnnc.org/lp/editions/nc-american-indians/cover

Resources in libraries [via WorldCat]

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Comments

My Great Grandmother was Dicey McLeod. From the little I know of her she was a Cherokee indian. She lived in Sanford NC where she raised 8 children or more. Are you able to locate any other information about her.

Thank you for reaching out with your question. I forwarded your request to our reference team. If you want to reach them directly, please contact slnc.reference@ncdcr.gov

Best, 
Kelly Eubank

Government and Heritage Library

You're site has barely helped me on my last 2 projects this site is worthless!

I need info on the black Indians of Norwood North Carolina

My 3rd great-grandmother Katherine(Catherine) Kitts was born in Tenn. in 1821.The family has always said she was full-blooded Cherokee. We've never been able to verify this.
She was married to a Baptist minister Asa Routh . I just found a family tree with a word Wyoga written next to her name. Was this the name of a Cherokee Village or some other hint? Any help would be appreciated. Dennis Lynch"

My great, great, great, great grandfather was a doctor in Asheville, NC and owned a farm. My great, great, great grandfather mentioned his parents moved from NC to Canada during the Civil War and returned after the war and he grew up on the farm and remembered seeing Lincoln after the war when he was around 5-years old. Our heritage is indian and my grandfathers brother was the noted coach Mel Ingram (my great uncle). I am trying to determine if our lineage is Creek or Cherokee. My great, great, great grandfather David C. Ingram was born in 1860 and lived to be 95. He had a half brother named Robert. I cannot find the name Ingram in the Cherokee rolls only in the Creek rolls. Does anyone know if Asheville, NC was indian country in 1820-1860? Creek or Cherokee? Thanks for any assistance.

Hello, 

I have done a lot of research on historic tribes in North Carolina. To my knowledge (and I could be wrong), I'm not aware of the Creek tribe living in NC since settlement by white Europeans. The Creek tribe lives further south in SC. The Cherokee tribe lived in SE Tennessee, SW tip of North Carolina, NW part of South Carolina, and the NE part of Georgia. Hope that helps. 

Erin Bradford, Government and Heritage Library

Good morning,
I've spent wayyy to much money trying to find out where the small percentage of Native American is coming from. My Dad says his Grandmother was Cherokee Indian but I can't find the proof. Besides it appears as though both sides Mom & Dad have lived in Enfield NC at one point. Even in Northampton NC but I'm roadblocked. Can you please help??
Lost after all of these years,
Carol

Good morning.
My mother's grandmom was Cherokee and I am trying to find out more information about her. When I review the census reports she was listed a Mulatto on the rolls and then it switch to Negro. Her name was Mary Alice (Malloy) married last name.

Good morning,

Thank you for visiting NCpedia. I am going to forward your request to our reference team.

Francesca Evans, Government & Heritage Library

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