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This article is from the Encyclopedia of North Carolina edited by William S. Powell. Copyright © 2006 by the University of North Carolina Press. Used by permission of the publisher. For personal use and not for further distribution. Please submit permission requests for other use directly to the publisher.

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Samarcand Manor

by Julian M. Pleasants, 2006

See also: Samarcand (Research Branch, NCO&H)

Samarcand Building, 1926. Image courtesy of State Archives of North Carolina, call #: N_98_9_187. Samarcand Manor, officially the State Home and Industrial School for Girls, was a humane correctional institution for young women established near Eagle Springs by the North Carolina state legislature in 1918. The purpose of the school was to reclaim and train delinquent girls by providing a "homelike place where those who have fallen may find temporary shelter, and under a firm yet kind discipline, begin to live morally." The school, built on 230 acres in Samarcand (named for the Muslim city conquered by Alexander the Great that served as his empire's seat of learning and culture), was one of the first institutions of its type in the South. The original clients were young girls or women who had been convicted of being prostitutes, vagrants, or habitual drunkards or who were guilty of any misdemeanor suggesting that they were "not virtuous." There were no definite terms, but the clients could not be held more than three years and were to be released on good behavior.

"Our Three Youngest." Image courtesy of State Archives of North Carolina, call#: N_98_9_189.Agnes B. MacNaughton became Samarcand's first superintendent, and by 1919 more than 200 women between the ages of 10 and 30 had arrived. In the 1920s the daily program emphasized Bible study, manners, cleanliness, music, nature, and sports in addition to the regular academic subjects. The girls also received vocational training in sewing, weaving, canning, laundry work, and poultry and dairying activities. The program stressed self-reliance and pride in one's work. Between 1928 and 1930 a total of 296 girls were admitted, most between the ages of 12 and 16. By 1930 Samarcand had a hospital and an accredited high school.

In 1931, 16 Samarcand inmates set fire to two dorms and were charged with arson, then a capital crime. While awaiting trial, the girls burned their jail cells. Eight of the 12 involved were eventually sent to prison. Samarcand survived this notorious 1931 incident and other difficulties but was unable to withstand the financial strains of the Great Depression and the siphoning off of staff during World War II. In 1974 the state changed the name of the institution to Samarcand Manor and placed it under the purview of the North Carolina Department of Human Resources, Youth Division. Samarcand became one of five state training schools designed to rehabilitate delinquent children (both male and female) between the ages of 10 and 17. The school shifted its emphasis to treatment and therapy. In the early 2000s Samarcand had approximately 190 clients (40 females and 150 males) and 210 staff members.

References: "Playtime, children on the wagon." Image courtesy of State Archives of North Carolina, call #: N_98_9_188.

Ida Briggs Henderson, "The Work at Samarcand," The State (4 Apr. 1936).

Lisbeth Parrott, "Samarcand Opens Door of Hope to 1,000th Girl in Tenth Year," Raleigh News and Observer, 7 Oct. 1928.

Samarcand Manor: 50th Anniversary, 1918-1968 (1968).

Additional Resources:

State Home and Industrial School for Girls (Samarcand, N.C.). Biennial report of the Board of Directors and Superintendent of the State Home and Industrial School for Girls, Samarcand Manor, Samarcand, N.C. Samarcand, N.C. [N.C.]: The School. 1926-1938. http://digital.ncdcr.gov/cdm/ref/collection/p16062coll9/id/4894 (accessed May 24, 2013).

Samarkand Manor. GoogleMaps.

"Samarcand." N.C. Highway Historical Marker K-34, N.C. Office of Archives & History. https://www.ncdcr.gov/about/history/division-historical-resources/nc-highway-historical-marker-program/Markers.aspx?sp=Markers&k=Markers&sv=K-34

McLaurin, Melton Alonza, and Russell, Anne. The Wayward Girls of Samarcand: A true story of the American South. Wilmington, N.C.: Bradley Creek Press. 2012.

Steelman, Ben. "Review - McLaurin, Russell write a gripping yarn." StarNews Media. July 8, 2012. http://www.starnewsonline.com/article/20120708/articles/120709845

Gilkeson, Florence. "Samarkand Makes Case to Stay Open." ThePilot.com. September 24, 2009.  #

Image Credits:

Samarcand Building, 1926. Image courtesy of State Archives of North Carolina, call #: N_98_9_187.

"Playtime, children on the wagon." Image courtesy of State Archives of North Carolina, call #: N_98_9_188.

"Our Three Youngest." Image courtesy of State Archives of North Carolina, call#: N_98_9_189.

Origin - location: 

Comments

Comment: 

I was at Samarcand from 1964 - 1967 and left on graduation day. I never thought it as a bad place. Some grown-ups I thought was out of line but I appreciated the help I received the 34 months I was there. I lived at Carroll Hall, Leonard Cottage, and New Cottage. I asked to stay until I graduated. I left on June 15, 1967.....scared to death because I was comfortable in the routine of school and training vocation. I think my life would have been a lot worse if I had not been there. I had a clean bed, I was warm with clothes to wear (which we made ourselves) and food to eat (which we grow and cooked ourselves). We lived in silence which really isn't a good way to live but I understand the reason behind that. I was told I was the youngest girl to get the Honor button, which I still have and I lived there longer than any other girl when I left. I learned a lot. I only wish I had taken the time to tell the cottage counselors how much they had help me while there.

Comment: 

Amen!

Comment: 

I really should know you I was there too but then again it was soooooo many of us. Lol I graduated June 15 1966. Addie McFarland I remember all those you mentioned

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I was there from 65-66

Comment: 

I was there when you were I only stayed a short time but I feel like you do I think this place saved my life

Comment: 

I was there when I was 12 . I can't remember what Cottage I was in but it was all girls at the bottom of the hill. He goes to impact play pool remember I won third place in the softball throw remember swimming in the pool with a real good friend named Connie she was a 9blonde hair green eyed beautiful girl older than me. And one of the cottage parents was named Miss heel she was a black woman and she was so nice. I'm 52 now and all I could do when I was there was try to run away. Oh yeah and I remember having a teacher he had a glass eye and his name was mr. Horsley. Anyone remember him.

Comment: 

I was there in 1985 i remember mr horsely. I was in tufts after leaving mitchel cottage. When i first got there mr green was a really nice staff member remember walking to the old building for meals lock up was on the right as we came in they would stand at the bars it was scary i was there when the forest fire just about burnt it down what was the barbers name he taught me how cut hair.

Comment: 

I was there about that time...

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i was also on samarkand manors drill team in the 80s we performed in parades and other funtions.

Comment: 

i was at samarkand manor in the 80 s i remember most of the cottages names norton was down the hill then you came up to fry cottage which was for girls then there was irland cottage and my favorite cottage was tuffs between irland cottage was the rec center and title 20 was up stairs above that and of course there was carroll hall that place was really a mess back then so much was happening the people worked there couldnt keep up with everything you had 12 to 16 year olds working around smoking cigarttes and being jus bad asses lolglad them days are long pass i still thing about samarkand every now and then.

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