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This article is from the Encyclopedia of North Carolina edited by William S. Powell. Copyright © 2006 by the University of North Carolina Press. Used by permission of the publisher. For personal use and not for further distribution. Please submit permission requests for other use directly to the publisher.

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Lumbee Indians

by Glenn Ellen Starr Stilling

Part i: Introduction; Part ii: Theories of Lumbee Origins; Part iii: Discrimination and Injustice in the Nineteenth Century; Part iv: Lumbee Pursuit of Education, Civil Rights, and Self-Governance; Part v: The Fight for Federal Recognition; Part vi: Lumbee Language and Culture; Part vii: References

Part vii: References

Karen I. Blu, The Lumbee Problem: The Making of an American Indian People (1980; rev. ed., 2001).

Adolph L. Dial, The Lumbee (1993).

Dial and David K. Eliades, The Only Land I Know: A History of the Lumbee Indians (rev. ed., 1996).

Stanley Knick, The Lumbee in Context: Toward an Understanding (2000).

Gerald M. Sider, Living Indian Histories: Lumbee and Tuscarora People in North Carolina (2003).

Glenn Ellen Starr Stilling, The Lumbee Indians: An Annotated Bibliography Supplement (2002).

Walt Wolfram and others, Fine in theWorld: Lumbee Language in Time and Place (2002).

Additional Resources:

Elliott, Walker. “‘I Told Him I’d Never Been to His Back Door for Nothing’: The Lumbee Indian Struggle for Higher Education under Jim Crow.” The North Carolina Historical Review 90, no. 1 (2013): 49–87.