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This article is from the Encyclopedia of North Carolina edited by William S. Powell. Copyright © 2006 by the University of North Carolina Press. Used by permission of the publisher. For personal use and not for further distribution. Please submit permission requests for other use directly to the publisher.

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by Carole Watterson Troxler, 2006

Black Sailor's portrait painted during the American Revolution.

Additional research provided by Laura Morgan.

Part 5: References

Wallace Brown, The King's Friends: The Composition and Motives of the American Loyalist Claimants (1965).

Jeffrey J. Crow, The Black Experience in Revolutionary North Carolina (1977).

Robert O. DeMond, The Loyalists in North Carolina during the Revolution (1964).

John Hairr, Colonel David Fanning: The Adventures of a Carolina Loyalist (2000).

Carole Watterson Troxler, The Loyalist Experience in North Carolina (1976).




Image Credit:

Black Sailor's portrait painted during the American Revolution.  Portrait by unknown artist, c. 1780. Original in the Newport Historical Society. Image courtesy of Learn NC. Available from (accessed May 14, 2012).


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