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Confederate Prison (Salisbury)

by Louis A. Brown, 2006

See Also: Salisbury Arsenal

On 9 July 1861, six weeks after North Carolina seceded from the Union, the Confederate government asked Governor Henry T. Clark if the state could provide a place to hold prisoners of war (POWs). The 20-year-old Maxwell Chambers textile mill in Salisbury, then vacant, was hurriedly fitted for that purpose. On 9 December 120 prisoners transferred from the Raleigh State Fairgrounds were the first prisoners to enter the Salisbury Prison, the first and only Civil War prison in North Carolina.

The Confederate Prison at Salisbury as depicted in an 1886 lithograph. North Carolina Collection, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Library.The prison population increased to about 1,400 by late May 1862, when the inmates were paroled and returned to the Union. These POWs lived in relative comfort, passing the time by making trinkets, playing baseball, and even engaging in theatrical productions. After their departure, POWs at Salisbury Prison were outnumbered by Yankee deserters and dissident Confederates. This period of "normalcy" suddenly ended in early October 1864, when 10,000 prisoners began arriving at a facility that was intended to hold only 2,500. This huge increase, which resulted from the fall of Atlanta and the ongoing siege of Richmond, made it easier for the Union army to rescue its POWs. Salisbury received some of the Richmond prisoners, and after October 1864, the majority of newly captured Union POWs.

The most painful period for the Salisbury prisoners was from October 1864 until their release in February 1865. Accounts from POW diaries indicate that the prisoners took in about 1,600 calories per day, whereas 2,000 calories was considered the minimum for survival under the adverse conditions that existed at Salisbury. It is not surprising that diarrhea was the most common disease as well as the most deadly, due in large part to the overcrowding and unsanitary conditions.

From December 1861, when it opened, through September 1864, Salisbury Prison experienced a 2 percent death rate (about 100 deaths). But between October 1864 and 15 February 1865, the rate soared to 28 percent. An estimated 4,000 prisoners died at the prison during its existence, for an overall death rate of 26 percent. Bodies were collected daily at the "dead house" and hauled in a one-horse wagon to trenches in a nearby "old cornfield." A visitor to the cemetery today finds these 18 trenches to be the most somber, painful, and shocking part of the Salisbury National Cemetery. The total death rate in Union and Confederate prisons is considered to have been about the same at 12 percent.

In the fall of 1864 escape from Salisbury Prison was considered almost necessary to save one's life. Many POWs escaped, but only about 300 reached Union lines. During an attempted mass escape on 25 Nov. 1864, none got away and about 200 prisoners lost their lives. Tunneling became popular with the POWs. The most famous tunnel escape took place in mid-January 1865, when an estimated 100 managed to flee the prison. According to one prisoner, the easiest way to get "out of this cursed place" was to defect to the Confederacy. Although about 2,100 POWs reportedly defected, these soldiers contributed little to the Confederate cause.

The morale of the prisoners was usually very low. Muggers plagued all Civil War prisons. Prisoners' diaries often mention their faith in God, and Christian services were held at the prison in the fall of 1864. Occasionally, Salisbury residents would hear the sound of a familiar hymn coming from the prison; as one citizen recalled, it was like "a thought of heaven from a field of graves." Fraternal organizations such as the Masons and Oddfellows provided some moral support for the prisoners.

All POWs were transferred from Salisbury in February 1865, about six weeks before Maj. Gen. George H. Stoneman, on 12-13 Apr. 1865, destroyed the prison and other Confederate installations collectively known as the Salisbury Arsenal. In May Federal troops occupied the town, but in early September 1865 the Union commander turned over civil control of Salisbury to duly elected town officials. At the end of the war all Confederate property fell into Union hands and in September 1866 was sold at auction by the Freedmen's Bureau to the Holmes brothers for $1,600.

In 1866 a U.S. military commission charged Maj. John H. Gee, commandant of the Salisbury Prison during late 1864, with murder and "violation of the laws and customs of war." After a lengthy trial, Gee was acquitted of both charges.


Louis A. Brown, The Salisbury Prison: A Case Study of Confederate Military Prisons, 1861-1865 (1992).

Annette Gee Ford, The Captive: Major John H. Gee, Commandant of the Confederate Prison at Salisbury, North Carolina, 1864-1865 (2000).


Origin - location: 



My friends 2nd great grandpa Joseph Barnett in the 4th Kentucky mounted Calvary. . was prisoner in 1864 was captured near neunan, Georgia he was sent to North Carolina as a prisoner. Is there records of who was imprisoned there?


My great great grandfather was a prisoner there that actually escaped. He also wrote a few pages about his ordeal in the early 1900s. His name was Daniel Sheehan and he served in the 20th Michigan Infantry. I believe (its somewhat confusing) that he attained the rank of Lieutenant with a field promotion.
Never having been to Salisbury, is there a museum or records of that time frame open to the public?


I am looking for any information on my great grandfather David W. Gutshall. He served in Co. I, 9th Pennsylvania Cavalry (92nd Pa) and was captured during Sherman's March to the Sea. He was paroled April 4, 1865. Someone mentioned he may have been sent here. Is there any record? Appreciate any information. Thank you!


Hi- I'm researching my Great Great Grandfather Wait (or Waitsill) A. Hastings. I have one source stating he was part of the famous escape from Libby Prison but two other sources stating he escaped from Salisbury. He was taken prisoner during the battle of Chickamauga. Can you suggest any resources to research for verification? Or any other assistance you can provide will be appreciated. According to pension records he was part of Co. K 21st infantry. Thanks!


Dear Suzanne, 

Thank you for your comment and for visiting NCpedia! I am forwarding your inquiry to our library's Reference Team as they might be able to help steer you in the right direction regarding resources. A staff member from our library will be reaching out to you via e-mail soon.

Molly Goldston, Government & Heritage Library


I wonder if you might have any interest in a letter to the editor published in the National Tribune on August 19, 1882, written by my great-grandfather, Rollin J. Smalley of Co. H, 19th Reg, Wisconsin? It reads, "I was a private in the late war: enlisted in January, 1872, before I was seventeen, and was with my regiment in all of its engagements until I was taken prisoner of the 27th of October, 1864, at Deep Bottom, near Richmond, while chargin on the rbel works in front of Richmond. We were all young men, nine of us, that were taken prisoners; one was wounded in both arms and was sent to the rebel hospital in Richmond and died there; the other eight went to Salisbury, of which two died in Salisbury prison, and two died on the way to their home in March, 1865. I think too much cannot be said of the horrors of those prisons. Soon it will be ceased to be believed that such barbarities existed with and by order and consent of the confederate government." The other paragraph of the letter deals with discontent that promises of land were replaced with homesteads, not useful to a non-farmer.


Dear Linda,

Thank you for visiting NCpedia and submitting your comment!

There are two places you may want to look into donating this letter:

1. Government & Heritage Library, part of the State Library of North Carolina:

2.  State Archives of North Carolina:

Molly Goldston, Government & Heritage Library





I am looking for information on my 3rd great grandfather Issac Pool. His date of death is supposedly March 4th, 1865. He was supposed to be buried there at the prison. Could you please help me with some information regarding his stay and death?

I appreciate any help you may have available.

Holly Edgington



You may be able to find some information in this source, a federal document that lists the names of Union soldiers who died at Salisbury prison camp.

Also, I suggest looking at the subscription database for his service record, which would tell you about when he was captured. 


Erin Bradford, Government and Heritage Library

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