Germany surrendered to the Allies in May 1945; Japan three months later. Victory was achieved at last — but at what cost? In this chapter you’ll read about the joy of V-E (Victory in Europe) Day and V-J (Victory over Japan) Day. You’ll also analyze the decision to use the atomic bomb and watch a U.S. government film about the bombs’ effects. Our look at World War II concludes with a list of North Carolina’s war dead and a December 1945 newsreel about America’s first postwar holiday season.