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Washington's Southern Tour

by Thomas J. Farnham, 2006; Revised December 2021

"June 1791 - George Washington Visits Salem, NC." Image courtesy of the North Carolina Collection, UNC Libraries. Washington's southern tour, which began on 9 Apr. 1791, was a journey that George Washington had been contemplating since before his inauguration as president of the United States. In May 1789 he decided to visit every state in the country "in order to become better acquainted with their principal characters and internal circumstances." He began traveling shortly after taking office. He had been to all the northeastern states by the end of August 1790 but had delayed a trip to the southern states largely because one of them-North Carolina-had yet to ratify the U.S. Constitution. Once that was accomplished, on 13 Nov. 1790, he started making plans to journey to the South.

With a carefully devised "line of march" and accompanied only by his senior secretary, Maj. William Jackson, and a handful of servants, Washington left Mount Vernon to investigate conditions in three states he had never seen: North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia. He traveled in a lightweight carriage; a wagon, the only other vehicle in his simple entourage, followed with his luggage.

By 16 Apr. 1791 Washington had passed through Virginia and reached Halifax, N.C. He found the town less than impressive: "It seems to be in a decline & does not it is said contain a thousand souls." From Halifax he made his way to Tarboro, where he encountered a humble but sincere welcome. On 19 April he "dined at a trifling place called Greenville" and then headed off in the direction of New Bern accompanied, much to his regret, by the Pitt Light Horse. (Of all the endless annoyances Washington encountered while traveling, he found none to be a greater nuisance than breathing the dust of other men's horses.)

Everything about Washington's stay in New Bern seemed to delight him, including his "exceedingly good lodgings" in the home of John G. Stanly, the entertainments at the Tryon Palace, and the beautiful women with whom the town apparently was amply endowed. His only complaint, certainly a minor one, involved the failure of his hosts to offer him griddle cakes during his stay.

Washington had nothing positive to say about the accommodations or the countryside between New Bern and Wilmington, but he found his reception in Wilmington, where he spent two days, nearly equal to what he had experienced in New Bern. He left Wilmington on 26 April, destined for South Carolina and Georgia.

After stops in Charleston, Savannah, Augusta, Columbia, and Camden, Washington returned to North Carolina on 27 May. Thirteen members of the Salisbury Military Company rode with him to Charlotte, which, like Greenville, he found to be a "trifling place," although he did enjoy dinner at the home of Gen. Thomas Polk. Congressman John Steele, who would later become a part of his administration, joined Washington in Charlotte and accompanied him to Salisbury. His impressions of Salisbury and Salem were favorable.

Governor Alexander Martin met Washington in Salem. The president was eager to learn what North Carolinians thought about their new ties to the federal government. Martin assured him that opposition to ratification was fast dissipating, that North Carolina officials would soon be taking oaths to uphold the Constitution, and that the state had no sympathy with land companies that attempted to usurp lands the federal government recognized as belonging to Native Americans. That was all good news. The next day, 1 June, Washington and Martin surveyed the location at Guilford Courthouse where Americans under Nathanael Greene and Englishmen commanded by Lord Charles Cornwallis had fought just a short decade before. While around Salem, Washington also visited Kernersville during his 1791 tour.  At the time, the community had not received the name Kernersville.  Washington visited "Dobson's" -- a tavern located at Dobson's crossroads to have breakfast. This area would later become Kernersville.

The Guilford Courthouse visit marked the end of Washington's southern tour. The rest of his trip was largely a matter of returning home, and by 12 June he was back at Mount Vernon.


John C. Fitzpatrick, ed., The Diaries of George Washington (4 vols., 1925).

Douglas Southall Freeman, George Washington: A Biography (6 vols., 1948-1954).

Archibald Henderson, Washington's Southern Tour, 1791 (1923).

Additional Resources:

"John Steele." NC Highway Historical Marker L-15, NC Office of Archives & History:

Historic Halifax: Halifax After Independence, NC Historic Sites, NC Office of Archives & History:

George Washington's Visit to North Carolina Collection, ca. 1987-2004 (Manuscript Collection #1035), Joyner Library, ECU:

Graham, Nicholas. "Presidents in Kernersville." December 6, 2005. North Carolina Miscellany. North Carolina Collections, UNC University Library. (accessed August 27, 2014).

Image Credit:

"June 1791 - George Washington Visits Salem, NC." Image courtesy of the North Carolina Collection, UNC Libraries. Available from (accessed November 30, 2012).



This is a great post on George Washington's only true visit to North Carolina, though as a young man GW was in sections of the Great Dismal Swamp in both N.C. and Virginia. My own book on this subject, "George Washington's 1791 Southern Tour," was published by The History Press in February 2016, just in time for the 225th anniversary of the Tour. I first learned of Washington's presidential visit to North Carolina in a history class under Professor Wm. S. Powell at UNC, and I've been a student of the journey ever since. The Southern Tour was the finale of Washington's travels to visit the 13 states during his first term as president. The Southern Tour had formal occasions in Virginia, the Carolinas, and Georgia--and the president stopped in Georgetown, Maryland (now a section of D.C.) both coming 'n going to finalize arrangements to create the new federal capital that became his namesake. During his time in North Carolina, GW slept in 14 places in the state--8 going south, and 6 on his return passage going north. Washington's entourage was small, a staff of five plus a secretary, Wm. Jackson, a South Carolinian who had joined the president's staff. Jackson was also GW's secretary at the 1787 Constitutional Convention. Two enslaved men from Mount Vernon, Paris and Giles, were on the Southern Tour; they often staffed GW at the president's home in Philadelphia and in his presidential travels.


This is an excellent post I seen thanks to share it. It is really what I wanted to see hope in future you will continue for sharing such a excellent post.


There were a few more "stops' on Washington's Southern Tour you failed to mention ?
On June 3,1791 in Caswell County ,N.C. He spent his last night in North Carolina at the home of Mr. Dudley Gatewood My 6th GreatGrandfather. He also visited the "iron works' in Rockingham,Co. N.C. .
These visits are documented in "Washington's diaries' located in The Library of Congress. I would appreciate a "correction' made to his travelings thru North Carolina.


Dear Jerome,

Hi Jerome,

I have added the NC Highway Historical Marker regarding Washington's stop at the home of Dudley Gatewood, courtesy of the North Carolina Department of Cultural Resources, to NCpedia.  You can read the entry at:

Thanks for asking your question and leading us to a new NCpedia resource!

Best wishes,

Kelly Agan, Government & Heritage Library


I will supply you with the reference you requested from me in the next few weeks. The State of N.C.
erected a "State Historical Marker' about this visit to Mr. Dudley Gatewood's home approx 2 miles west on NC Highway 86 directly in front of North Elementary School, in Caswell N.C. 1993.


Dear Jerome,

Thanks for visiting NCpedia and sharing your family connection to Washington's trip with us.  And thanks for providing this information.  We will investigate update of this entry.

Best wishes,

Kelly Agan, Government & Heritage Library


Why don't the article mention Washington staying in Kernersville? We have a plack in the middle of town mentioning Washington's stay in Kernersville.


Hi William,

Thank you for visiting this entry and for letting us know about this piece of history that's missing from the NCpedia record.  I have updated the entry (you'll see it at the bottom under "Update from NCpedia Staff").  If you have any additional information about the plaque or an internet link to share with us for a photo of the marker, that would be fabulous. 

A copy of this reply is also being sent to the email address included with the comment.

Thanks for visiting NCpedia and sharing this with us!

Kelly Agan, Government & Heritage Library


Washington DID pass through Kernersville (though it did not have that name then) on his tour -- leaving Salem quite early in the morning and breakfasting at the Inn at the crossroads of today's Main and Mountain Streets. He did not STAY in Kernersville. Later that day they were at the Battlefield.

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