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Governor: 1587-1590

by Dennis F. Daniels
Research Branch, NC Office of Archives and History, 2006.

See also: John White, Dictionary of North Carolina Biography; Art of John White

<"Map made by John White, 1585-86, showing the relationship of Roanoke Island, Dasamonquepeuc, Port Ferdinando, Croatoan, and Hatoraske." National Park Service. (Fort Raleigh National Historic Site)John White (born ca. 1540), artist, surveyor and cartographer, is best known as the governor of the second English expedition to Roanoke Island that ended in the ill-fated “Lost Colony.” He created an accurate map of the “Virginia” coast that was incorporated by other European mapmakers in their maps of North America and sketched the first drawings of the America’s natural life and natives, ones that outclass any other efforts at artistic portrayal of the New World. At one time, it was debated whether White the governor and White the artist were the same person, but historical evidence indicates that the governor and artist were indeed the same person.

White’s personal history prior to the Roanoke voyages is obscure, made more so by the fact that John White was such a common name. He was likely born in England possibly between 1540 and 1550 since he was a grandfather by 1587. White attended church in the parish of St. Martin Ludgate in London; he married Tomasyn Cooper in June 1566. The marriage produced two known children: Tom, who died as a young child, and Eleanor. White possibly was trained as an illustrator under a London master.

By the 1580s, White had become deeply involved with the English efforts to colonize North America. In 1585 White accompanied Sir Ralph Lane’s expedition at establish the first English colony in America. White served as the official artist and mapmaker for the expedition; he worked with scientist Thomas Harriot in recording flora and fauna and native people. In 1588 Harriot published A Briefe and True Report of the New Found Land of Virginia; it was not until Frankfort engraver and printer Theodor de Dry published Harriot’s book in 1590 that he White’s images were reproduced. The book was published in four languages and attained wide attention in Europe.

Following the return of the all-male Lane colony, a new scheme emerged to establish another colony in Virginia. The new colony was to be settled with families and would be self-sustaining. The Chesapeake Bay area was the site selected for the colony. Sir Walter Raleigh, who held the land patent for Virginia, gave White the responsibility of organizing the effort. White spent late 1586 obtaining prospective settlers, in time securing 113 people. These included White’s daughter Eleanor and son-in-law Ananias Dare (who was also listed as one of White’s assistants). On January 7, 1587, a formal plan was established naming “John White of London Gentleman, to be the chief Governor there.”

The new colony left for Virginia in May 1587; they arrived at Roanoke Island in late July. The second colony at Roanoke repaired the building left from Lane’s colony and constructed new ones. White attempted to establish friendly relations with the Indians, but failed and tensions resulted. On a personal level, White became a grandfather following the birth of Virginia Dare the first English child born in North America, on August 18. The colonists’ situation soon became precarious. They arrived too late to plant crops, and the colonists could not depend on the Indians for help. With their supplies running low, the colonists asked White to return to England for supplies. White departed for England in late August and arrived in November.

White did not return to Roanoke until August 1590 because of various problems, including hostilities between England and Spain. In time, White arranged a relief expedition. However, when he and his party went ashore, they found no sign of life, but discovered that the colonists had constructed a fort. On an entrance post, the group found the word “CROATOAN” carved in it. The word was a predetermined signal that the colonists had gone to Croatoan, Manteo’s friendly Indian tribe. Poor weather conditions and a shortage of food and water forced White to give up the search for the colonists. White returned to England arriving in November 1590. The fate of the “Lost Colony” was never determined. The incident was a personal tragedy for White because he never again saw his daughter, son-in-law, or granddaughter.

Details of White’s life after Roanoke are virtually unknown. By February 1593 he resided in a house in County Cork, Ireland. Beyond this information nothing else survived. The date of his death has not been determined.


Adams, Randolph G. 1935. An effort to identify John White. The American Historical Review. 41 (1): 87-91. (JSTOR subscription required.)

Cumming, William Patterson. 1938. The identity of John White, governor of Roanoke, and John White, the artist. North Carolina historical review. 15 (3): 197-203.

Durant, David N. 1981. Raleigh's lost colony. New York: Atheneum.

Garraty, John A., and Mark C. Carnes. 1999. American national biography. Vol. 23. New York: Oxford University Press.

Kupperman, Karen Ordahl. 2007. Roanoke: the abandoned colony. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.

National Gallery of Art (U.S.). 1965. The watercolor drawings of John White from the British Museum. National Gallery of Art, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, the North Carolina Museum of Art, Raleigh [and] the Pierpont Morgan Library, New York.

Neville, John D. 1985. John White. Raleigh, N.C.: America's Four Hundredth Anniversary Committee, N.C. Dept. of Cultural Resources.

Powell, William Stevens. 1991. Dictionary of North Carolina biography. Vol. 6, T-Z. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. Online via NetLibrary and NC LIVE.

Quinn, David B. 1985. Set fair for Roanoke: voyages and colonies, 1584-1606. Chapel Hill: Published for America's Four Hundredth Anniversary Committee by the University of North Carolina Press.

Quinn, David B. 1991. The Roanoke voyages, 1584-1590: documents to illustrate the English voyages to North America under the patent granted to Walter Raleigh in 1584. New York: Dover Publications.

White, John, and P. H. Hulton. 1984. America, 1585: the complete drawings of John White. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.

WorldCat (Searches numerous library catalogs)

Image Credits:

Map made by John White, 1585–86, showing the relationship of Roanoke Island, Dasamonquepeuc, Port Ferdinando, Croatoan, and Hatoraske.. National Park Service, Fort Raleigh National Historic Site.

Origin - location: 
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Dear NCpedia;

Do you know if there are any pictures of John White? I am making comic for a high school art project, and I chose the Lost Colony of Roanoke to be my topic because I love history, and found the Lost Colony to be very interesting. However, I cannot find any pictures of Governor White. Is John White one of the men in the famous picture of the relief party returning to find the colonists vanished?

Thank you,



Dear Ryan,

Thank you for visiting NCpedia and for taking the time to share your comment and question! What a neat project you are working on! I am forwarding your question to our library's Reference Team who might be able to assit you further. A staff member from our library will be reaching out to you soon.

Taylor Thompson, Government & Heritage Library


I've read where men were left behind on scouting voyages before and after the LOST COLONY. Surnames from these voges and names from the Lost Colony are found on the earliest of records in this North Carolina region of Dare, Currituck, Pasquotank, Camden, Elizabeth City, South Mills, Moyock, Nixonton, Swan Quarter, Engelhard, Hyde, Hatteras, Ocracoke, Manteo (NC) But, those Surnames are ALL found just across the stateline into SE Virginia too. In the areas of Chesapeake, Virginia Beach, Norfolk, Portsmouth, Kempsville, Pungo, Princess Anne Co, Norfolk Co, Lynnhaven Parish, Lower Norfolk, Elizabeth City (VA). Knotts Island which half is in Virginia and the other in North Carolina. Many of my branches of family have been in the area since records were kept in both states. I have read about what they call squatters that were already living just across the border before the official colonization of Carolina. Maybe all these lost men "were" assimilated in with the local tribes. It is my belief, many of the Native Americans were then assimilated in with the new settlers. All of our families have passed down that we have Native blood. I don't think All the Natives assimilated into the coastal colonist. I think some left during the Tuscarora Wars and I think some left again after the Civil War. After the Civil War, rights were taken away from all MEN of color including the Natives whereas prior to the civil war the local Natives had been able to maintain some kind of rights that the black man had not. (This forced your Nativism underground). I think some drifted west in different groups at different times. A good chunk of them are still here though, now look white, and live all around me. Getting ready to get my dad to take the Y67 Chromosome and Full sequence Mitochondrial test to search for that Native Haplogroup gene. Good luck everyone, may we one day get the definitive proof for historians to accept it.


what were the major failures?


I'm looking for information on a crew member of John White's on the Evangelist ship. He was the cook named David O'Neal b. 1575 married to Morning Dew.


Did you ever find any information on David O'Neal? I am apparently a descendant as well, and I'm having trouble with dates... Apparently Morning Dew was also born ~1575 and married David O'Neal in 1591. Then the available information loses traction with the birth of their son, John O'Neal, in... 1690! That would have made her 95 years old, which is impossible! I think there is at least one missing generation in between there, but just can't find any information besides what I listed above.
Thanks in advance for any information!
Carol Ann


I am also a descendant of the O'Neal line. I've tracked back to John ONeal (1670-1721) as my 8th great-grandfather. There are numerous references to David and Morning Dew being his parents, but I also see that the dates don't make sense. Have you found anything further sine you submitted your comment in 2016?


Thank you for taking the time to share your inquiry! I have sent you and email to connect you with Reference Services at the State Library of NC's Government & Heritage Library. I hope they can be of assistance.

Good luck in your research.


Michelle Underhill, Digital Information Management Program, NC Government & Heritage Library


Is there any record of the name of the ship carrying the Dares to Roanoke; any passenger list? How many/which passengers went back for supplies?NC


Hi Joanne,

Thanks for visiting NCpedia and asking these really good questions.  In NCpedia we unfortunately do not have specific answers to these questions.

However, I can point you to a few places that may be able to get you started. First, the National Park Service has a page with information on what is known about the Roanoke Voyages.  You can find that at  According to that page, Governor John White's voyage to Roanoke Island in 1587 was made on a ship called the Lyon. The Park Service also lists the colonists associated with the several Roanoke voyages on the same website.  You can find this information at

Much of the Park Service information comes from a multi-volume work by Richard Hakluyt (1553-1616) who published a chronicle of the voyages to the Virginia colony. Volume 8 contains information about John White's voyage and brief mentions of the Dares.  You can find that digitized online at Internet Archive at this link

If you would like to do further research on these questions, or other aspects of NC history, research librarians here at the Government & Heritage Library at the State Library of North Carolina can help get you started.  You can contact them either by phone or email and will find contact information on our website at

This reply is also being sent to the email address provided with your comment.

I hope this helps and good luck in your research!

Kelly Agan, 

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