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Watauga Settlement

by David L. Cockrell, 2006

The Watauga Settlement was the first community established in North Carolina's western frontier and holds the distinction of being perhaps the first American settlement west of the Appalachian Mountains. In the mid-1700s a mixture of English, Highland Scot, and Scotch-Irish pioneers came to the Watauga River Valley, bringing with them a strong sense of self-reliance and a fierce desire for self-government. In fact, these hardy settlers temporarily established one of the first self-governing political bodies to emerge in the American colonies. The settlers' energetic ability to defend their territory helped maintain the integrity of North Carolina's western border during the revolutionary period and advanced the cause of European settlement in the mountainous regions.

An enterprising Virginian named William Bean was the first recorded traveler to the Watauga area. Others followed his lead, among them Daniel Boone, who reputedly killed a bear in the vicinity. Political unrest in the Piedmont, including the Regulator Movement, brought an infusion of immigrants to the mountains. The nature of this migration led British colonial authorities to issue royal edicts forbidding settlement of the western lands by "absconded debtors, indentured servants, and outlaws," or "overmountain people," as they were generally called. Bean and James Robertson, who had come from Orange County in 1770, were not to be undone, however, and shrewdly began negotiations with the local Cherokee tribes to lease the land they had settled. Thus, in 1772 was born the Watauga Association, an independent political entity that constructed its own laws and enforced them by its own court system. Many historians have hailed this as a milestone event in American history, representing a pioneering effort at establishing self-government.

Western settlement increased as the Cherokee's influence waned after their defeat in Lord Dunmore's War and as eastern political turmoil, soon to crystallize into a revolutionary movement, drove more colonists to seek isolation in the mountain region. In 1775, Richard Henderson, with the assistance of Daniel Boone, negotiated a large land purchase from the Cherokee. Simultaneously, the Watauga settlers acquired from the Cherokee legal ownership of their area for the sum of two thousand pounds.

The outbreak of war between the colonists and England thrust new responsibilities on the mountain men. No longer able to avoid the conflict, they became the protectors of the new state of North Carolina and its western borders. To formalize their political status, the Wataugans created the Washington District (probably the first political entity to bear the name of the future president) and sought annexation by the state government. In 1776 British influence led the Cherokee into a futile effort to regain the vast mountainous lands. The tribe began to attack western settlements but achieved nothing beyond provoking a furious response by the westerners, aided by troops sent by four nearby states. This crushing defeat of the Cherokee set the stage for their ultimate removal several decades later.

Eminent Wataugans, such as John Sevier, who had played a key role in the Cherokee Campaign, soon turned their energies to the defeat of the British. In 1780 England again invaded the southern colonies in a last-ditch effort to win the war. Continental defeats earlier that year left only the Carolinas' irregular military forces to contest the British advance. As the westward wing of Lord Charles Cornwallis's army penetrated the mountainous areas, the Wataugans gathered together to meet the threat. The result was the Battle of King's Mountain (7 Oct. 1780), in which the British force was annihilated. Thus the Wataugans played a significant role in the failure of the British master plan of 1780 and the subsequent collapse of efforts to subdue the rebellious colonies.

After the Revolution, the independent nature of the Wataugans again became apparent as a group of them sought to create their own state of Franklin. In August 1784, at a convention held in Jonesborough, a state government was hastily constructed, with Sevier assuming the governor's seat. North Carolina, seeing most of its western lands usurped by the unruly mountain men, contested the existence of the fledgling state. Franklin's lack of recognition by the Confederation government sealed its fate, and by 1788 the state ceased to exist (its territory later became part of the state of Tennessee).

The legacy of the Watauga Settlement remains strong in western North Carolina, where many people adamantly retain their clannish nature but tourism now largely fuels the economy. Western counties that once composed the settlement area now carry the names of early pioneers, such as Henderson and McDowell. The county of Watauga stands as a reminder of the region's heritage of being part of the first community west of the Appalachians.


John Preston Arthur, A History of Watauga County, North Carolina (1915).

Arthur, Western North Carolina: A History, 1730-1913 (1914).

Max Dixon, The Wataugans (1976).

Additional Resources:

Richard Henderson, NC Highway Historical Marker G-62:

Ramsey, J. G. M. 1999. The annals of Tennessee to the end of the eighteenth century: comprising its settlement, as the Watauga Association, from 1769 to 1777; a part of North-Carolina, from 1777 to 1784; the state of Franklin, from 1784 to 1788; a part of North-Carolina, from 1788 to 1790; the territory of the U. States, South of the Ohio, from 1790 to 1796; the state of Tennessee, from 1796 to 1800. Knoxville: East Tennessee Historical Society [Overmountain Press].

Origin - location: 



I am lookiing specifically for Rev Thomas Milligan , a Methodist preacher who lived in the Wautauga and married in Long Island of the Holston in abt 1804. His wife was Margaret Christian, daughter of Gilbert Christian. Gilbert Christian was the secretary of state of defunct Franklin and is said to have given all records to his daughter Margaret Milligan, from whom I am descended. Thomas Milligan was Irish, came to Buncombe county with brother Gilbert Milligan and sister Martha. Thomas Milligan moved to Tunnelton, Indiana in Lawrence County where he died about 1851. No connenctions can be made of brother and sister who stayed in North Carolina. Gilbert Christian was a war hero--fought with John Sevier. Seeking information regarding the Milligan Family


I taught American/Tennessee history at the elementary level which included some of the information covered in your piece. Recently while working on my husband's genealogy, I discovered that his 4 times great grandmother was Sidney Sevier Redden. Her husband was John Redden(Reddin,Reding, Redd) who I believe was part of the Watauga Settlement. We have also found documentation that she was John Sevier's sister and that she and her husband sold a tract of land in Washington county north of the Nolachucky River to John Sevier. I would be interested in finding out if you have any information on Sidney Sevier Redden or John Redden in your personal archives or in the Watauga archives. I"m planning a visit to Johnson City next week and will be visiting The Watauga Settlement. Thank you for your time and any information you may have to share.


I, too am related to Sidney Sevier Redden and her husband John Redden. My research leads me to believe her father was Valentine Seiver II, but more documentation is needed. Any further information on this topic would be greatly appreciated.



I'm sending your comment to our reference librarians who can assist you. 

Erin Bradford, Government and Heritage Library


Wow, I consider myself to know a wee bit more than my friends when it comes to history, but this floored me. I came across two ancestors that were buried at the State of Franklin and assumed it was a mistake and they meant Franklin TN. Thank you for this. My passion is with the Civil War but I sure am going to research this. Thank you again.


I remember seeing a Grimes in the list of people in the Watauga Settlement. Maybe Henry. I, too, would like to see the list of people.


My family has been in Watauga County, NC for 400 years, well before it was actually a county and we continue to live here. There are plenty of Grimes in this county, although I’m not sure if there are Grimes in the State of Franklin area of East Tennessee. The original Grimes was a white man. However, all the Grimes in Watauga are African American. It was common for Appalachian people to interracially marry and it was acceptable to do so. Melungeons. I don’t think there’s a pure race of people in Appalachia. We’re all a little bit of everything from hundreds of years ago when it was unacceptable everywhere else. :)


I am looking for a list of Americans who fought in the Battle of Kings Mountain. Do you know of a book which might contain such a list? I understand that no list can be 100% accurate, but I would like to know more about the participants.


Go to smith it gives you the most important thing in it.


Dear Fredwyn,

Thanks for visiting NCpedia. I am going to forward your request to our reference team.

Francesca Evans, Government & Heritage Library

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